Compare the Images of Slavery

List and define three ways in which seventeenth-century Amsterdam can be considered a city of contradictions, and discuss why it was an important center for the development of science and philosophy.

There were several contradictions within Calvinist 17th century Amsterdam. They were obsessed with acquiring material goods and power but still very rigid in their religious beliefs. For example, due to the booming economy and the level of wealth circulating, many made a new habit of collecting fine art. Although they were able to collect this art within the walls of their homes, art was still forbidden within the walls of the churches.

In addition, things that were considered unorthodox for Protestants were completely okay for those of Catholic or Jewish faith. That tolerance would be granted to the Protestants if they choose to convert.

More notably, in the 16th century, Charles I took the power of modern-day Holland and Belgium to mine silver and pay off a large debt owed by the Spanish family.

Philip II attempted to assert his power and impose a new Catholic hierarchy within the Netherlands, all while living in Madrid at the time. Thousands of soldiers were sent into Antwerp to lead the movement, but, the people of Amsterdam rejected his advances. Then, roughly 10 years later in 1576, these same Spanish soldiers began rioting overpay and there was bloodshed of thousands in the streets of Antwerp, this is known as The Spanish Fury. This led to a union being formed within the Netherlands, although only lasting a few years, the Northern provinces successfully declared their final independence from Spain (Sayre).

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Although the North was free of Spain, they felt that Antwerp was still too closely related to Spain. Amsterdam then closed the port of Antwerp and closed off all incoming commerce. The wealth that had once flown through Antwerp would now flow through Amsterdam. This meant that the goldmine that found trouble for The Netherlands in the 16th century would later be what Amsterdam finds in the 17th century. Amsterdam was now a beneficiary of their antagonist (Sayre).

Compare the depiction of the Antebellum South in Uncle Tom’s Cabin to that in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Which is more realistic, and why?

The depictions of slavery in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Uncle Tom’s Cabin are both shocking and ever-lasting. However, there has been a great debate that one is more true to life than the other based on the author’s life, voice, style of literature, and history.

Both The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Uncle Tom’s Cabin were major slave narratives in the 19th century; however, the impact of each novel has changed as time goes on. Uncle Tom’s Cabin became to be viewed as aggressive, preachy, and more in line with propaganda rather than an actual story as most of the book was written based on slave narratives Beecher-Stowe used as research for the novel. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was viewed as a true piece of literature based on Twain’s firsthand experience (Arac).

I have read both novels and the major difference and the element that sets them apart are the details within each novel and how they are played out. The major element in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that resonates with me is the relationship between Jim and Huck is raw and real and how Huck struggles with his morals surrounding saving Jim and going to hell or turning Jim in and ultimately betraying a friend. I believe this is a very realistic depiction of internal battles many faced during the 19th century.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin’s purpose was to portray life as a slave and the horrors in which they lived. Although this novel was based on true slave narratives and Uncle Tom was intended to be a heroic character, he ends up coming off as a passive, overly religious slave who, although he wanted freedom, didn’t want to rise above whites. As you read other slave narratives, that depiction becomes more and more inaccurate. In addition to Uncle Tom’s character, Beecher Stowe became less credible due to her upbringing and having never experienced any part of slavery personally.

Both novels depicted the horrors, brutality, and emotional turmoil surrounding slavery. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Uncle Tom’s Cabin were eventually banned in several states and countries around the world. Some have been lifted and some have remained, there have even been school district lawsuits over Huckleberry Finn remaining on required reading lists. Although The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn strike me as more realistic, there is no denying that both novels made their marks on history in various ways.

 How did Native Americans’ views on land and the settlers’ views on land differ, and inevitably produce conflict?

The wars between Native Americans and the settlers are a theme we have seen in literature, film, and art for centuries. Their conflicts arose from one thing; the understanding of the purpose of land.

The Native Americans viewed land as something that was to be used communally by all. Native Americans viewed the land as a sacred resource that would provide for all. This meant hunting, producing crops, and building homes. In addition to providing, they felt that the land was the source of life; they hunted only what they could eat, so populations of animals could continue to increase. As those populations increase, so does their ability to eat and produce goods. They would also move on after a specific amount of time to allow the land on which they had farmed to become wild again. The Natives had a different understanding of nature; they were at one with the land and respected it as if they would another human. As a result of this belief, Native Americans initially welcomed the settlers with open arms (Voa).

Owning land and fiscal gain was priority number one for the settlers. In Europe, land equals wealth and power. The majority of the settlers who came from England, Europe, and other countries would have never been able to purchase land in their respective countries. They were too poor and oppressed by the religious systems in which they were living. Once they arrived in North America, it appeared there was a bounty of the land that was up for grabs (Sayre). This produced a power-hungry mentality that created several conflicts.

Once the settlers were “settled” they began to “clear the land.” This meant forcing the natives from their homes, tribes, and reservations and forcing foreign standards of life (Voa). They believed their way of life was the only and best way to live. They viewed and treated the natives as inferior beings and felt they needed to be converted. In addition to the power, they transferred diseases to the natives that were carrying during their travels and several became very ill. Due to the warfare on their land, way of life, and people, the natives eventually had no choice but to fight back, causing years of bloodshed (Voa).

Despite their open beliefs, the Natives soon regretted their decision to welcome the settlers as they did not understand the goal of the settlers was to strip them of everything they knew. Owning land was very important to the settlers; the Natives didn’t believe the land was something that could be owned. There was no idea among the Natives that land was something to be divided up, sold, and owned by individuals. To them, it was like trying to own the air, or the clouds (Voa).

Identify and explain at least two reasons for Paris’s position as the fin de siècle’s center for artistic and literary change, and discuss how the Exposition of 1889 symbolized Western progress.

The Universal Exposition of 1889 was a world fair intended to showcase the advancements of the world. There were over 100 structures and technological inventions strewn across the Quai d’Orsay next to the beautiful Seine River. The exhibit represented 40+ different cultures and countries. It was segmented into three categories: prehistoric, historic, and contemporary. Its principal attraction was a 300m high iron clad tower created by Gustave Eiffel (Garnier). This was Paris’s way of displaying its supremacy. This tower would later become one of the most popular tourist attractions called The Eiffel Tower.

In 1889 there were prejudices of Western society that were very apparent in the exhibits themselves. Many of them were embellished to look more foreign. However, the Americans dominated this exhibition in the technology exhibits, not surprising as they were represented and led by Thomas Edison, inventor of the lightbulb some years earlier. The French were elated with the successes of The United States after having witnessed and assisted in the country’s birth in 1776. The French viewed The United States as a more energetic European culture that was equally superior and felt they would both eventually dominate the globe (Jourdain).

Although The United States had been known to dominate the tech world, The French were directly responsible were several forms of advancement in the arts that are still being channeled today. For example, without Parisian artists such as Edouard Manet, Impressionist art would not be around. This was a style of painting that focused on individual human perceptions and experiences. Impressionism was founded by Parisian artists who sought independence. This style of painting became internationally celebrated and followed due to the likes of Claude Monet and Edgar Degas. It was the first of its kind and several other painting styles followed suit (Sayre).

Paris is also famous for the development of ballet in the 18th century. It fused elements of contemporary dance, music, and theatre plot into one style. The Ballet Comique was performed for the French Court and was considered an extravagant form of entertainment. In the 20th century, The Paris-based avant-garde Ballets Russe became the leading ballet company in the world. From Ballet, the 19th-century all-female CanCan became all the rage and made its way to the West. Ballet in The United States and across the world became a disciplined prestigious form of dance. Ballet has paved the way for jazz dance, modern dance, lyrical dance, hip-hop, and beyond (History Cooperative). It is widely seen infamous Broadway shows such as The Nutcracker.

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Compare the Images of Slavery. (2022, May 12). Retrieved from

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