Community Health Nursing

  1. Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

The health promotion demonstrated by Pender relies upon scholarly theory according to which mental perceptual elements, for instance, saw favorable circumstances, limits, and self-sufficiency which affect responsibility in prosperity propelling practices. The Pender’s HPM includes factors that include the standard of interventions. These parts give a rich wellspring of interventional substance and philosophies. The growing rate of heaviness and the strong effect of lifestyle factors, including diet, on the causative factors of weight gain and loss.

These have been routinely defined by the examinations driven in the western world. In Pender’s model the three most important, or most emphasized points are isolated encounters; so, incidences. The social results, and any influences thereof, or within an event.

The Health Belief Model was created to comprehend the disappointment of individuals to receive help. This model gets from the mental and conduct hypothesis with the establishment that the two segments of well-being related to conducting are on one hand the longing to maintain a strategic distance from disease, or get well if effectively sick.

Then again, the activity will avert, or fix, sickness leading to the well-being of the affected individual. Eventually, a person’s game-plan regularly relies upon the individual’s view of the advantages and obstructions identified with well-being conduct. The individual builds are valuable, contingent upon the well-being result of intrigue, yet for the best utilization of the model, it ought to be coordinated with different models that represent the ecological setting and recommend methodologies for change.

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Furthermore, the Theory of Reasoned action argues that the best indicator of conduct is aimed. The goal is the intellectual portrayal of an individual’s preparation to play out any given behavior, and it is viewed as a method to predict an individual aim or intention through behavior. As suggested in the article’s theory “Theory of Reasoned Action suggests that a person’s behavior is determined by his/her intention to perform the behavior and that this intention” (Health Communication). However, I am inclined to disagree as we cannot always be sure about a person’s intention, or goal/aim. It would be wrong to judge someone’s behavior through an incorrectly assumed intention.

The Transtheoretical Model demonstrate centers around the basic leadership of the individual and is a model of deliberate change. The TTM works on the suspicion that individuals don’t change practices rapidly and unequivocally. Or maybe, a change in conduct, particularly constant conduct, happens persistently through a repeating procedure. In receiving sound practices or disposing of unfortunate ones, individuals advance through five dimensions identified with their availability to change pre-thought, examination, arrangement, activity, and upkeep. At each stage, diverse mediation methodologies will enable individuals to advance to the following stage. The Transtheoretical Show gives proposed systems to general wellbeing mediations to address individuals at different phases of the basic leadership process. This can result in mediations that are custom-fitted and viable.

  1. Discuss at least two definitions of health.

To begin with, I would define health into two categories physical well-being and the mental well-being of a person. There’s also the spiritual health of a person, but I strongly believe that the spiritual ties in with the mental health of a person. When assessing the health of a person it is important to check both aspects. However, from personal experience, I have noticed that mental and physical health are both tied to one another. When one is experiencing an illness or disease they often end up in a state of depression, which goes from physical to mental. The inverse could also be true, when a person is in a state of depression their bodies become weak. Their cortisol rises and immune system defenses go down, making it much easier for an individual to become sick.

  1. Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States.

It is important to note that every individual culture or community has guidelines to follow. It is also important to note that when dividing these groups each one has a higher prevalence of the said disease. For example, in our Hispanic culture, it is evident that we tend to have hypernatremia, hypertension, and low HDL, with high LDL, and triglycerides. We also tend to have higher incidences of Diabetes and Heart disease, but that is tied to our diet and results from HTN, and high levels of sugar. Again, all due to a poor diet.

  1. Describe the importance of air, water, and food quality as a determinant of health.

It is important to have a clean environment to promote healing and the well-being of a person. A clean environment often requires clean oxygen, a clean area, and a better quality of food and water. This means that a nutritious diet counteracts the effects of an illness, for example, a person with heart disease should have a diet based on low sodium, and low triglycerides as well as high HDL and low LDL. They should also be on bed rest with clean linen and hydrated with water that is treated and not dirty. Doing all of these things along with medical intervention has a better outcome than one without the other.


  1. Health Communication | Theory of Planned Behavior/ Reasoned Action. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  2. Health Promotion Model (n.d.). Retrieved from
  3. Theories and Approaches. (2019). Retrieved from
  4. Transtheoretical Model. (2019). Retrieved from

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Community Health Nursing. (2022, Jun 30). Retrieved from

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