College: Dentistry Department: Restorative Department
Semester: Fall Academic Year: 2019/2020
Course Title: Dental anatomy and occlusion
Course ID: DDS209
Section Number: All
Number of Enrolled Students: 156
Instructor Name: Assessment Tool:* Assessment Date:
Dr. Ayyam Khalid
Assignment (forensic dentistry) 10/11/2019 (Submission Deadline)
Student Name: Razan Bashir Hamed Student ID: 201711278
Course Learning Outcome (CLO)
* Example of Assessment Tool: First Test, Midterm exam, Final Exam
Forensic dentistry is also called odontology dentistry it is a type of forensic medicine regarding forensic dentistry, which is a large domain of forensic science used to identify people by their teeth, by comparing the dental records that exist of them during their life, dental records are unique, some people consider them as fingerprints.
Dentistry and human identification
Forensic dentistry used in identification of descends people as well, who cant be identify by optical means, it is one of the major methods apart of visual identification in situations like dead human remains, where the individual facial features and fingerprints cant be recognized, so his teeth, is the only lead to a positive identification as well as its major field in justice, it examines dental evidence for the interest of law to offer law application, and to identify criminals as well, oral and maxillofacial structure is differ from one person to another, and can indicate the age of the individual as well as human gene DNA.
Teeth are the sturdiest parts of the body, and dentitions differ and used to identify the person by comparing human dentition with his dental records, therefore individual tooth morphology is useful and can lead to a positive recognition.
Identification depends on the differences between ante mortem and post mortem. The variety of dental characteristics of an individual is huge, which makes each dentition unique. The tooth enamel is the hardest and the most stable tissue in human body, which has the ability to withstand different types of damages, therefore teeth are considers to be a perfect mark for identification. For the comparison process to be successful there must be dental records. This depends most on dentist recording and maintaining dental notes, radiographs and clinical photographs. The availability of dental records will allow comparing the dental characteristics of the person during life with those received from after death.
Commonly, human remains when founded it should be reported by certain agencies, who then request for dental identification. Generally a tentative and presumptive identification is available (i.e human ID card in his wallet) and this will enable ante-mortem records to be located. On the other hand, location where the body is found, or any other physical characteristics may assist in giving putative identification, frequently using data from the missing person database. Ante mortem records are then obtained from the dental professionals. The use of radiograph, dental casts, prosthetic or dental appliance, type and no of restoration present may help to identify the victim. Similarities and discrepancies should be noticed during the comparison process.
Infringement of the standard of care or negligence and human abuse are two distinct areas of endeavor for the forensic dentistry. Civil cases as negligence or tort cases, which include malpractice cases. These are the interaction between two parties. While any dentist might be sued by a patient with an allegation of malpractice as illustrated in the radiograph, damage may be sustained at the hands of another person or due to food contaminated or foreign body or product such as glass for instance, forensic dentists are often involved in these types of cases as an expert witness for either the defense or plaintiff. In order to prevail in malpractice case, the plaintiff must demonstrate by expert testimony that defendant dentist performed substandard treatment, that is, rendered care that failed to equal or exceed the standard of care. Investigators of such cases that mentioned above often require examinations, comparisons, and testimony by expert witness including the forensic dentist. This may involve examining the person and
studying records and radiographs from prior dentist. All of the techniques mentioned previously are useful, they are critical as long as the victim was fearful of future revenge from her abuser. Injuries the dentist might observe include fractured bone and teeth, bruises, lacerations, and bite mark.
Injuries induced by teeth, belt buckles and other left on objects, such as skin have a distinctive pattern. Those patterned injuries are useful for judicial purposes as they help in reconstructing past events that surrounded the biting process. Bite mark for example indicate a violent interaction between the criminal and the victim, and even might tell us about the criminal intentions of the criminal, whether sexual, child abuse or other form of aggression. Also bite marks are the only patterned injuries that can suggest with different levels of certainty, who the biter was by comparing the location and measurement of teeth marks in a bite mark with those of the suspects, forensic odontologists can exclude or include persons suspected of causing the bite marks, bite marks can as well solve homicides and assault and battery cases by analysis and comparison, dental casts and photographs from the suspect or suspects are made after obtaining a court order search warrant.
Forensic dentist must be full of knowledge and understanding regarding the tooth morphology, dental arch characteristics, physiology of jaw function and occlusion. Teeth that are malposition, not in occlusion, fraction, or restored may not leave the exact same mark on a victim as teeth that are in ideal alignment. This variation from normal occlusion could be useful and benefit the forensic dentist in analysis and identification.
Although these techniques could be very useful in solving some child abuse and assaults cases, bite marks cannot generally be used to a level of absolute certainty in suspect identification. Additional evidence is usually required to gain satisfaction. A bite mark may also provide DNA evidence of the criminal.
Are relatively common occurrences in the modern world, absolutely each one of us remembering the tragedy disaster that occurred on Dec.26, 2004? The massive tsunami that killed thousands of people. Yet, there are many natural disasters that cause massive tragedy. These include earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods. Man-made disaster includes airplane crashes, building collapse, and industrial accidents. Mass disasters are unpredictable and will continue to happen forever and after.
Forensic dentistry has a major role in mass disasters, is primarily helps in identifying human remains. Knowledge of dental anatomy is critical to this role. The dentist must be able to coordinate and function well in small disasters as well as large disasters from the initial occurrence of the disaster. This requires a trained and experienced dentist, whom completely integrated into the operation.
Preparation and training
A forensic dental team must be well trained at the individual level as well as a team, to work in a professional way and process positive identifications.
In mass disaster event, local law agencies and emergency medical teams response first. Legal authority and jurisdiction are by the legal existence such as city or country in which the disaster occurs.
It is critical for a dentist to be available at the disaster site to identify human remains and dental components of human remains that may not be recognizable by non-dental trained person; there must be a dentist on the disaster scene during the whole operation of search and recovery. All body parts are given separate identification numbers, which will often means that several parts of a single individual dentition may possess a different and unique structure. An appropriate tracking method is used to locate within the site grid and diagram the original location of each body and parts. Aspect of this process can be used later in the forensic determination of cause and method of progression of the disaster event.
Morgue and forensic dental identification operation
Morgue operation includes three major components which are the ante-mortem examination, post- mortem and a comparison of each, each one of them has two forensic dentists on board. There is a minimum of one experienced forensic dentist in each of the team.
Another component of forensic identification may include determining the age, race, and sex of the victim. Age can be predestined in some cases by the evaluation of teeth, especially during the period of primary or mixed dentition. Growth and development of the dentition are completely by the age of 18, when all the primary teeth are shedded and the wisdom teeth third molars are well developed. Anthropologic determinates also include overall skull characteristics for ethnic, as well as sexual identifying. The cranial sutures will ossify and obliterate as a person ages and can used as age indicator.
Mass disaster case study
– John Talbot was killed in Castillon battle against French in 1453, his body was disfigured by his injuries, Join identity was proved by his missing left molar.
– Mohammed Zia Ul-Haq, died due to the concerted plane crash on 1988, his body was identified by his dentition
– Saddam Husseins sons were killed by the US military hands on 2003; both sons were positively identified by their dental records.
Importance of forensic dentistry to practicing dentist
Forensic dentistry is a huge area of valuable interest. All dentists must maintain delicate and universal dental records for proper, care stander, and forensic science purposes. This includes dental written records, and radiographs that precisely represent or reproduces the oral anatomy in details. The dental professional must well realize how important dental anatomy knowledge in forensic procedures is. Carabelli cusp which present on the palatal aspect of maxillary first molar can indicate to a person as Caucasian heritage. Shovel-shaped incisors may identify a person of Mongoloid or Asian origin. An age indicator sign is present on the root apex of the tooth. Cusp contour of mandibular premolars could be useful in bite mark analysis. Root apex, pulp stones, pulpal recession in the adult patient, maxilla morphology, and practically all aspects of dental anatomy are useful in the forensic identification of an
individual or for assessing standard-of-care issues. In some cases, the ability to recognize a single tooth as a maxillary against mandibular premolar was the main key to the ability to search the database of ante mortem records and confirm identification. Dental anatomy considered to be the foundation of Odontology dentistry.
Wheelers dental anatomy, physiology and occlusion