LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1. Literature Review
In this chapter, literature review covers issues concerning historical background of
education in Nigeria, educational development, ICT and educational development,
government policies on IT, effects of Internet on College Students in particular and the
youths in general, effects of International satellite media on College Students in particular
and the youths in general, and other related issues.
Also, in line with the research design, theoretical framework follows.
2.1.2. ICT and Education
The centrality of education in the survival and development of every society can never be
overemphasised. And any influence on education in any giving society cans tantamount
to significant consequence on that society. It is a fundamental yardstick for measuring
development of societies; hence, it is an area of concern to every society. More so, to the
developing countries who are trying to catch up with their developed counterparts. In
recent years, where the world became opened for unfettered competition under the
concept of liberalisation and other related concepts, education has become key tool that
enables societies properly compete and yield positive result out of the competition. At
present, ICT has become central in educational development throughout the globe,
therefore, the ability or lack of it of any society to incorporate ICT and pursue its proper
utilization by the citizenry will largely determine the success and growth of that society
or otherwise. In recent times, the use of highly sophisticated means of transportation and
information and communications technology has reduced the world to a global village;
the use of fax machine, satellite and cable T.V as well as the internet has swept away the
national cultural boundaries (Abdulraheem Y. 2012).
The uses of ICT is making major differences in the learning of
students and teaching approaches. Schools in the Western World
invested a lot for ICT infrastructures over the last 20 years, and
students use computers more often and for a much larger range of
applications (Volman, 2005). Several studies reveal that students
using ICT facilities mostly show higher learning gains than those
who do not use, (Mikre, 2011).
Nigerian government in the year 2000 developed a policy on Information Technology
(IT), with the aim of making the country IT compliant among African countries. The
motive was also to incorporate the use of ICT as a tool for sustainable development in the
country. The accomplishment of this mission started with the creation and effective take
up of National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in 2000.
2.1.3. Concept of Educational Development
Scholars viewed educational development from various view points, while some viewed
it from a broader perspective; some viewed it from a narrower perspective. According to
Taylor, Frenay, and Clement, (2008), The term was broader than faculty development,
in that it encompassed instructional, curriculum, organizational, and some aspects of
faculty development. In another sense, the term was narrower in that it focused on the
teaching domain, as opposed to all aspects of academic career development (Taylor et al
P.2). According to (Knight and Wilcox, 1998 in Taylor et al 2008), educational
development entails all the work that is done systematically to help faculty members to
do their best to foster student learning. In this sense, educational development involves
policy, administrative as well as ad hoc decisions concerning education. Each and every
stakeholder is expected to play a distinguishing role towards achieving educational
2.1.4. Nigerian Educational Policy
Educational policy in Nigeria has been shaped by the quest for national development
based on political and socio-economic considerations. The first indigenous National
Policy on Education in Nigeria after independence was produced in 1977 followed by
three revised editions, first in 1981, 1998 and 2004. All with sole aim of making it
relevant to the development needs of the country (Imam, 2012). These policies were
formulated to achieve sets of objectives as:
i. The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.
ii. The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the
individual and the Nigerian society.
iii. The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around. and
iv. The acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and
social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and
contribute to the development of the society.
The present day reality has proven that we are living in an ICT age, which made teaching
and learning; the core for educational development, to imbibe new culture and
dimensions. The employment of new techniques on ways of imparting knowledge, new
ways and issues in counseling, new teaching gadgets and devices and the means of
communication between the teacher and the pupil, all reflect the ICT epoch. Soft wires
are being developed to satisfy needs in the teaching and learning. Accordingly, the
objectives of National Policy on Education in this era cannot be realized without making
the society a vibrant IT compliant. In this regard, the country?s policy on IT and its fullest
implementation is a prerequisite to achieving the stated policy on education. The
Nigerian policy on IT has captured this in its vision statement and in its statement of
2.1.5. Vision of Nigerian IT Policy
Vision of the Nigerian IT policy was to make Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa
and a key player in the Information Society by the year 2005, using IT as the engine for
sustainable development and global competitiveness?. (National IT Policy 2000). While
some of the objectives of the IT policy were, to re-engineer and improve urban and rural
development schemes, to empower children, women and the disabled by providing
special programs for the acquisition of IT skills, to empower the youth with IT skills and
prepare them for global competitiveness, to integrate IT into the mainstream of education
and training and to create IT awareness and ensure universal access in order to promote
IT diffusion in all sectors of our national life.
Actually, the above objectives are all aimed at achieving national development;
educational development inclusive. Hence, provision of necessary infrastructure at all
levels is a pre-condition for the realisation of these noble objectives. Thus, at state levels
the provision of a functional Internet Cafe at schools is a step towards that direction.
However, the effort must not be left at the government hands alone; individuals as well as
organisations have an important role to play. Creation of awareness also has a greater
effect on achieving some of the stated objectives.
According to a study conducted on availability of Human and Material Resources for the
Implementation of the New Basic Education English Language Curriculum in Kaduna
State, there is insufficient supply of instructional materials (such as students textbooks,
teachers guides, charts, slides, projectors, tapes, audio and video, CDs, DVDs etc) and
facilities such as language laboratories, ICT and libraries in all the schools visited?,
(Yusuf, 2013). In a similar study also conducted by Yusuf, (2013) on the availability and
management of ICT in secondary schools, it was revealed that, ICT facilities are not
readily available in most secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. [In addition] the study
revealed that most teachers do not use ICT facilities in teaching English language as
teachers lack the basic skills to use the computer and other ICT devices, (Yusuf, 2013).
Accordingly, for the policy to be effective, the state should provide in a required content,
the necessary material for its smooth implementation. Smooth integration of educational
system into the main stream of global ICT requires the basic instruments for becoming
ICT compliant. In this situation where the required machinery is not available, or
available but greatly insufficient, then the policy objective is seldom realisable.
Typically, this is the condition of some schools in the urban areas; where the facilities are
available, they are insufficient or dysfunctional, while in most rural areas, they are