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Words: 1197, Paragraphs: 109, Pages: 4

Paper type: Review , Subject: Literature



2.1. Literature Review

2.1.1. Introduction

In this chapter, literature review covers issues concerning historical background of

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education in Nigeria, educational development, ICT and educational development,

government policies on IT, effects of Internet on College Students in particular and the

youths in general, effects of International satellite media on College Students in particular

and the youths in general, and other related issues.

Also, in line with the research design, theoretical framework follows.

2.1.2. ICT and Education

The centrality of education in the survival and development of every society can never be

overemphasised. And any influence on education in any giving society cans tantamount

to significant consequence on that society. It is a fundamental yardstick for measuring

development of societies; hence, it is an area of concern to every society. More so, to the

developing countries who are trying to catch up with their developed counterparts. In

recent years, where the world became opened for unfettered competition under the

concept of liberalisation and other related concepts, education has become key tool that

enables societies properly compete and yield positive result out of the competition. At

present, ICT has become central in educational development throughout the globe,

therefore, the ability or lack of it of any society to incorporate ICT and pursue its proper

utilization by the citizenry will largely determine the success and growth of that society


or otherwise. In recent times, the use of highly sophisticated means of transportation and

information and communications technology has reduced the world to a global village;

the use of fax machine, satellite and cable T.V as well as the internet has swept away the

national cultural boundaries (Abdulraheem Y. 2012).

The uses of ICT is making major differences in the learning of

students and teaching approaches. Schools in the Western World

invested a lot for ICT infrastructures over the last 20 years, and

students use computers more often and for a much larger range of

applications (Volman, 2005). Several studies reveal that students

using ICT facilities mostly show higher learning gains than those

who do not use, (Mikre, 2011).

Nigerian government in the year 2000 developed a policy on Information Technology

(IT), with the aim of making the country IT compliant among African countries. The

motive was also to incorporate the use of ICT as a tool for sustainable development in the

country. The accomplishment of this mission started with the creation and effective take

up of National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in 2000.

2.1.3. Concept of Educational Development

Scholars viewed educational development from various view points, while some viewed

it from a broader perspective; some viewed it from a narrower perspective. According to

Taylor, Frenay, and Clement, (2008), “The term was broader than faculty development,

in that it encompassed instructional, curriculum, organizational, and some aspects of

faculty development. In another sense, the term was narrower in that it focused on the

teaching domain, as opposed to all aspects of academic career development” (Taylor et al

P.2). According to (Knight and Wilcox, 1998 in Taylor et al 2008), educational


development entails “all the work that is done systematically to help faculty members to

do their best to foster student learning”. In this sense, educational development involves

policy, administrative as well as ad hoc decisions concerning education. Each and every

stakeholder is expected to play a distinguishing role towards achieving educational


2.1.4. Nigerian Educational Policy

Educational policy in Nigeria has been shaped by the quest for national development

based on political and socio-economic considerations. The first indigenous National

Policy on Education in Nigeria after independence was produced in 1977 followed by

three revised editions, first in 1981, 1998 and 2004. All with sole aim of making it

relevant to the development needs of the country (Imam, 2012). These policies were

formulated to achieve sets of objectives as:

i. The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.

ii. The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the

individual and the Nigerian society.

iii. The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around. and

iv. The acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and

social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and

contribute to the development of the society.

The present day reality has proven that we are living in an ICT age, which made teaching

and learning; the core for educational development, to imbibe new culture and

dimensions. The employment of new techniques on ways of imparting knowledge, new


ways and issues in counseling, new teaching gadgets and devices and the means of

communication between the teacher and the pupil, all reflect the ICT epoch. Soft wires

are being developed to satisfy needs in the teaching and learning. Accordingly, the

objectives of National Policy on Education in this era cannot be realized without making

the society a vibrant IT compliant. In this regard, the country?s policy on IT and its fullest

implementation is a prerequisite to achieving the stated policy on education. The

Nigerian policy on IT has captured this in its vision statement and in its statement of

objectives. Thus,

2.1.5. Vision of Nigerian IT Policy

Vision of the Nigerian IT policy was „to make Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa

and a key player in the Information Society by the year 2005, using IT as the engine for

sustainable development and global competitiveness?. (National IT Policy 2000). While

some of the objectives of the IT policy were, to re-engineer and improve urban and rural

development schemes, to empower children, women and the disabled by providing

special programs for the acquisition of IT skills, to empower the youth with IT skills and

prepare them for global competitiveness, to integrate IT into the mainstream of education

and training and to create IT awareness and ensure universal access in order to promote

IT diffusion in all sectors of our national life.

Actually, the above objectives are all aimed at achieving national development;

educational development inclusive. Hence, provision of necessary infrastructure at all

levels is a pre-condition for the realisation of these noble objectives. Thus, at state levels

the provision of a functional Internet Cafe at schools is a step towards that direction.


However, the effort must not be left at the government hands alone; individuals as well as

organisations have an important role to play. Creation of awareness also has a greater

effect on achieving some of the stated objectives.

According to a study conducted on availability of Human and Material Resources for the

Implementation of the New Basic Education English Language Curriculum in Kaduna

State, „there is insufficient supply of instructional materials (such as students textbooks,

teachers guides, charts, slides, projectors, tapes, audio and video, CDs, DVDs etc) and

facilities such as language laboratories, ICT and libraries in all the schools visited?,

(Yusuf, 2013). In a similar study also conducted by Yusuf, (2013) on the availability and

management of ICT in secondary schools, it was revealed that, „ICT facilities are not

readily available in most secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. [In addition] the study

revealed that most teachers do not use ICT facilities in teaching English language as

teachers lack the basic skills to use the computer and other ICT devices, (Yusuf, 2013).

Accordingly, for the policy to be effective, the state should provide in a required content,

the necessary material for its smooth implementation. Smooth integration of educational

system into the main stream of global ICT requires the basic instruments for becoming

ICT compliant. In this situation where the required machinery is not available, or

available but greatly insufficient, then the policy objective is seldom realisable.

Typically, this is the condition of some schools in the urban areas; where the facilities are

available, they are insufficient or dysfunctional, while in most rural areas, they are


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