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Chapter 8, Ancient Egypt

pharaohs
Ancient Egypt leaders

mummy
is a body that has been preserved after death to keep it from decaying.

The smallest coffin
This was made of solid gold and it held the king’s mummy.

the Mummy’s head
on it was a magnificent golden mask

jewelry and good luck charms
these lay on the mummy and in the wrappings that protected it.

other rooms of the tomb
were filled with statues, weapons, furniture, and even a chariot.

1922
archeologists discovered the tomb of the pharaoh known as King Tut (King Tutankhaten)

the three periods in ancient Egypt
the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom

The Old Kingdom
lasted from about 2700 to 2200 B.C.E. During this time, early pharaohs set up a strong central government, built great pyramids as tombs for themselves.

the Age of Pyramids
some historians also called this time the Old Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom
about 2000 to 1800 B.C.E. is sometimes called the Period of Reunification because it followed years of chaos and disunity.

the Period of Reunification
During this era the Egyptians made many great achievements in literature, art, and architecture.

The New Kingdom
about 1600 to 1100 B.C.E. is often called Egypt’s Golden Age. During this time of peace and stability.

Egypt’s Golden Age
During this time of peace and stability, Egypt’s power reached its height. Pharaohs increased trade and built gigantic monuments.

God
the Pharaohs were believed to be this. They owned all the land and were responsible for the people’s well being.

Afterlife
After the pharaohs died they were thought to enter this.

Pharaoh Khufu
He ruled from about 2551 to 2528 B.C.E. during the Old Kingdom period. He is best known as the builder of a famous pyramid.

Khufu
He helped establish the pharaoh as a center authority. For example, he kept strict control over Egypt’s food supply. This involved overseeing the harvest and storing extra grain. He also controlled a large network of government officials who carried out his laws.

The Great Pyramid of Giza
Khufu himself was responsible for the building of this, one of the wonders of the ancient world.

The Great Pyramid of Giza
It is made of more than 2 million stone blocks that fit together perfectly. Inside tunnels led to several burial chambers. The King’s chamber had six roofs to hold up the weight of the stones above it.

20 years
The Great Pyramid of Giza took more than this amount of years to complete

Pharaoh Senusret I
This pharaoh ruled from about 1971 to 1926 B.C.E. and during the Middle Kingdom. He was a strong leader who ruled a stable, unified Egypt. Art, literature, and architecture flourished during his reign.

craftspeople
These people thrived under Sensusret’s rule. The pharaoh controlled mines loaded with god, copper, and gems such as purple amethyst. THese people fashioned these materials into beautiful jewelry.

The Story of Siuhe
tells of a young official named Sinuhe who overhears a plot to kill the pharaoh. Fearing for his own life, Sinuhe flees Egypt. He thrives in his new land, but he grows homesick.

religious architecture
Senusret’s greatest accomplishments were in this one of his finest was the WHite Chapel.

Chapel
a small temple

The White Chapel
is a small temple made of alabaster which is a hard white stone. Beautiful artwork decorated the chapel’s pillars. scenes with the pharaohs, gods, birds, animals and egyptian symbols.

Pharaoh Hatshepsut
She ruled from about 1473 to 1458 B.C.E. and she was Egypt’s first female pharaoh. Under her rule, art and architecture flourished. She was also known for encouraging trade.

power
One of Hatshepsut’s greatest accomplishments was simply gaining…

Hatshepsut
strengthened her position in several ways: she filled her government with loyal advisors, and demanded the same respect as a male rule. She wore men’s clothing and even wore the fake beard that was worn by male pharaohs. She also spread stories that her father was a god.

trade
Hatshepsut promoted this with other countries. Her biggest expedition was to the African kingdom of Punt (southern end of the Red Sea)

Temple at Dayr al-Bahri
a temple built into a cliff above the Nile River and left by Hatshepsut. At the entrance were two tall thin monuments called obelisks.

obelisks
tall, thin, monuments in the entrance

sphinx
is a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a man

Pharaoh Ramses II
This pharaoh ruled from about 1290 to 1224 B.C.E. during the New Kingdom. He was called the Great, he is one of the most famous pharaohs

60
Ramses the Great reigned for more than this amount of years.

military leadership
Ramses the Great is best known for his

100
Ramses the Great had over ______ wives and more this same amount of children.

10
Ramses was a captain in the Egyptian army at this age

Ramses
He tried to defend an Egyptian empire that extended north into Canaan. His most famous military campaigns were against the Hittite EMpire now the country of Turkey. In his most famous battle, he reached a standoff with the Hittites even though he was badly outnumbered.

peacemaker
Ramses was also a _________________________. He and the Hittites signed the world’s fist peace treaty. This peace lasted until the Hittite Empire collapsed around 1190 B.C.E.

Temple complex at Abu SImbel
Ramses’ most impressive main temple was carved into the side of a cliff on a bank of the Nile River. A smaller temple honored his favorite wife, Nefertari.

the cliff
four giant seated statues of Ramses framed the entrance to the main temple and the figures were sculpted right out of the rock face of the ….

halls
three large rooms

sun
the temple was built so that twice a year this lined up with the entrance

temples and monuments
Ramses built more of these than any other pharaoh in history

tomb
When Ramses died, he was buried in this that he had constructed from himself. His is one of the best-preserved mummies ever found.

preserving
Egyptians believed that doing this to the bodies of the dead was necessary for the afterlife.

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