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Words: 674, Paragraphs: 37, Pages: 3

Paper type: Analysis , Subject: Electricity



This chapter presents the data gathered by the researchers along with corresponding treatment, analyses and appropriate interpretations to answer the problems and show the findings of the study.

Table 1: Comparison of Production Rate, Accessibility, and Price Under the Use of Different Types of Heat Sources

1. What heat source is the most practical and most efficient to use in terms of:

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1.1 Time needed to produce a specific amount of potable water

1.2 Accessibility to the users

1.3 Price needed to acquire the heat source

Characteristics Panggatong Electricity Solar

Time needed to produce (hrs) 2-3 hrs per liter

8-12 hrs per gallon 1-2 hrs per liter

4-8 hrs per gallon 8-10 hrs per liter

32-40 hrs per gallon

Accessibility Accessible Depends Very Accessible

Price (Php) Php 0.00 Php 31.68-63.36 Php 0.00

Table 1 shows the individual Production Rate of distillers having different heat sources. It could be seen that the Panggatong-based, Electric, and Solar Distillers have a 2-3 hrs/L, 1-2 hrs/L, and 8-10 hrs/L rates respectively. It could be seen as well that the Electric Distillers take the least time to produce a liter of clean water compared to the Panggatong-based and Solar. The accessibility of each type of distiller was seen to be: Accessible, Depends, Very Accessible. The Panggatong-based was seen to be “Accessible” since the materials used in its production were all typical household materials that even people of poverty still have access to. The Electric Distiller was seen to be “Depends” since not all people have access to electricity; hence, the use of these kinds of distillers would depend on the status of people and on whether they have access to electricity or not. The Solar Distiller was seen to be very accessible since it only needs direct sunlight to make the dirty water to evaporate. Along with the production rate and varying accessibility, it could also be seen on Table 1 that both the Panggatong-based and the Solar Distillers are free (Php 0.00); they are as such since the Panggatong-based was homemade while the Solar Distiller only needs the sun’s heat and nothing more. On the contrary, the Electric Distiller has a price of Php 31.68-63.36.

The price for the Electric Distillers were computed based on Dvorak and Skipton’s (2013) formula:

electric cost,($/gal)

=(wattage rating (watts))/(1000 watts/kWatt) ?hrs.needed to distill 1 gal. ?local electric rate ( $/kWh)

In support to Dvorak and Skipton (2013), Manila Electric Company, as reported by Rappler.com (May, 2019), the latest rate of electricity is Php10.56 per kilowatt hour (kWh). With this rate, following the formula of Dvorak and Skipton we would arrive with:

electric cost,(Php/gal)

=(750 (watts))/(1000 watts/kWatt) ?(4 to 8) ?10.56 (Php/kWh)=Php 31.68 to 63.36

Table 2: Input-Output Ratio of the Product

2. What is the input-output ratio of the product?

Water Content Product Commercialized


Input (L)

1 L (4 cups) 1 L (4 cups) 1 L (4 cups)

Output (L)

0.50 L (2 cups) 0.85 L (3.6 cups) 0.3 L (1.3 cups)

Ratio (%) 50% 85% 30%

It could be seen from Table 2 that having a constant input of 1 L (4 cups) of water yields different amounts of output depending on the type of distiller. It could also be seen that the product which uses panggatong as its heat source was able to produce 0.50 L (2 cups) of water. The commercialized distillers which use electricity as its heat source was seen to be able to produce 0.85 L (3.6 cups) of water. Lastly, the solar distillers which use the sun’s heat as a heat source was seen to produce 0.3 L (1.3 cups) of water.

Ratio was computed using the formula:

(Output (L))/(Input (L) )?100%

Following the formula:

Product’s Input-Output Ratio

(Output (L))/(Input (L) )?100%= (0.5 L)/(1 L)?100%=(50%)/(1 )= 50%

Commercialized Distillers’ Input-Output Ratio

(Output (L))/(Input (L) )?100%= (0.85 L)/(1 L)?100%=(85%)/(1 )= 85%

Solar Distillers’ Input-Output Ratio

(Output (L))/(Input (L) )?100%= (0.3 L)/(1 L)?100%=(30%)/(1 )= 30%

Table 3: Potability Test Results for Bacteria Test

3. How potable water output produced as per the results of:

3.1 Bacteria Test

3.1.1 Fecal Coliform Content

3.1.2 Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) Content

Test Requested No. of Positive tubes (out of 5 tubes) METHODS OF ANALYSIS Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100mL REMARKS


TOTAL COLIFORM 0 Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique

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