Review of Related Literature
This chapter represents related literatures from foreign and local sources but still applicable to our design proposed self-sustained economic housing. This also includes literatures to develop environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability.
Environmental sustainability has been giving much more attention to environmental concerns, knowing how businesses, livelihood, constructions, and infrastructures assesses their environmental impact by their use of natural resources and/or their carbon footprint. There are lots of studies involving environmental sustainability that have been conducted that we can use as a basis to improve our study. These articles can greatly enhance our proposed topic in which one of them is Solar Capability Building Programme for Public Housing by J. L. H. Wong, P. S. Teh, V. X. Wang, and L. M. H. Chia on 2012, which is all about the expansion of the use of renewable energy such as solar photovoltaic. Their goal is to develop a sustainable town while recognizing the resource constrains in Singapore.
Energy efficiency is one of the key factors in creating a sustainable environment. In the journal article Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing written by Chegut, Eichholtz, & Holtermans on 2016, they have analyzed the value effect of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market by using samples sold by the Dutch affordable housing, by the use of Energy Performance Certificates to know the efficiency of those transactions, they have conducted a research on how energy efficient in affordable housing works.
A holistic approach on minimizing the energy consumption of low income multiple housing can also be conducted aiming to reduce its energy consumption, carbon footprint, improve indoor environmental conditions, and be cost efficient. (Synnefa, Vasilakopoulou, Kyriakodis, Lontorofos, De Masi, Mastrapostoli, Karlessi, & Santamouris, 2017)
Another key factor in achieving a sustainable environment is the use of low-carbon methods in sustainable housing. There are no shortage in ideas on how can we achieve a low-carbon home, from high-tech smart houses in when they use modern construction methods, careful monitoring and monitored energy use in homes, to a more low-tech solution such as simple off-grid dwellings made of recycled consumer waste, and even the promotion of cutting the use of resources to achieve a more low-carbon home. (Smith, 2007: White, 2002: Fairlie, 1996: Hart, n.d.). Low-carbon homes can greatly affect the environmental sustainability, In our proposal, we have considered the impact of altering the site to nature, we are also targeting a more green economic housing that can provide a better lifestyle and residential satisfaction and at the same time help the environment to prosper. According to DCLG, 2007, The imperatives of climate change mean that our building technologies need to evolve to meet the demand of climate change predictions, while simultaneously reducing the contribution they make to CO2 emissions. Housing plays a significant part in the emissions profile.
The use of alternative bio-based construction material such as bamboo and wood can be used to decrease CO2 emissions in construction. A research by E. Zea Escamilla, G. Habert, & E. Wohlmuth When CO2 counts: Sustainability assessment of industrialized bamboo as an alternative for socialize housing programs in the Philippines presented the aims to show the sustainability of industrialized bamboo solutions in socialize housing programs, the research divided the sustainability assessment into three parts: environmental impact considering CO2 emissions, social considering the job creation potential, & economic considering potential revenue from CO2 credits. The use of alternative materials such as bamboo not only solves the problem of environmental sustainability but also affects the social sustainability and economic sustainability.
A zero-energy retrofitting strategy can also be used to improve environmental sustainability. The user behavior and indoor climate must be investigated if the retrofitting of the housing would be contributing to CO2 reduction, reduction of living cost, and comfort improvement. A result of improvement on the performance of building after the application of the solution in Spain (Escand?n, Silvester, & Konstantinou, 2018). These strategies can be used as basis for the solutions to our proposed economic housing to achieve the environmental sustainability. Social housing is becoming a major area of interest for energy researchers. In these settings, renewable energy sources, including solar and biomass, can provide substantial bene?ts to the tenants (in terms of monetary savings), while having a positive environmental impact on a larger scale than individual domestic installations (Teli et al., 2016). In its core, social housing is a service, during the establishment of accommodations, electricity, and water utilities, there occurs an inherent strip of barriers and success factors embedded within the interface between the housing provider and the residents, particularly where low-income socio economic factors are concerned(Mooreetal.,2015). While there is a growing literature base surrounding energy e?ciency and social housing.
The use of renewable energy to social will be a better use to economic housing as it will reduce the social and financial cost of the residents. There are previous researches surrounding the application of renewable energy, common finding from 67 research cases were under themes of Motivation, Barriers, and Success factors ( McCabe, Pojani, & Broese van Groenou, 2018)
According to Wallbaum (2012), an affordable house can be defined as a house that a family group can acquire within a given period, which generally ranges from 15 to 30 years. With the growing worldwide demand for affordable housing and the importance of supporting and stimulating sustainable development, the need for sustainable solutions in the affordable housing sector is at a peak (Wallbaum, 2012). Housing is considered to be one of the most basic human needs. Affordable housing are being in demand nowadays because of the growing population. This can also be the key in obtaining a sustainable development in a community. Affordability is one of the factors in achieving economic sustainability. Affordable housing is a long term investment, therefore home owners should be well provided with quality and comfort.
According to Oyebanji (2017), affordability is the most Critical Success Factor (CSFs) in achieving Social Sustainable Housing (SSH). The outcome is not surprising given that affordable housing can make low to moderate households meet their housing needs with ease, at a cost that is not above their financial ability, and allows them to meet other essential basic living cost (Wiesel and Davison, 2012; Emsley et al., 2008; Abidin, 2009).
Low-income families give more importance to residential satisfaction. One of the factors affecting residential satisfaction is affordability. Some studies about affordable housing focus more on planning and less evaluation in user satisfaction. The result of this scenarios is that most economic and social housings are being constructed without considering the satisfaction of the users. Assessment of residential satisfaction should be given importance not only to satisfy the users but it is also the key to maintain social sustainability. Delivering SSH promotes affordability, increases supply, ensures high quality homes, and improves access to decent housing that achieves user satisfaction (London Borough of BEXLEY, 2010).
Assessment of residential satisfaction will give benefit in planning and constructing a social sustainable housing. A socially sustainable housing need to accommodate the provision of infrastructure services such as education, water, employment, health facilities, playgrounds and green areas for promoting user satisfaction (Kates et al., 2005; Teck-Hong, 2011). Satisfaction includes the housing needs of the users whether they have all the things they need and if they have enough resources in the area. Social interaction, on the other hand, includes the users satisfaction towards the neighborhood. Interaction with neighbors among low-income families was a stronger predictor of residential satisfaction than planning policies and design principles. (Riazi, 2018).
Wong, J. L. H., The, P. S., Wang, V. X., & Chia, L. M. H. (2013) Solar Capability Building Programme for Public Housing. Energy Procedia, 33, 288-301. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.05.070
Chegut, A., Eichholtz, P., & Holtermans, R. (2016). Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing. Energy Policy, 97, 39-49. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.06.043
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Synnefa, A., Vasilakopoulou, K., Kyriakodis, G. E., Lontorfos, V., De Masi, R. F., Mastrapostoli, E., Karlessi, T., & Santamouris, M. (2017). Minimizing the energy consumption of low income multiple housing using a holistic approach. Energy and Building, 154, 55-71. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.07.034
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Escand?n, R., Silvester, S., & Konstantinou T. (2018). Evaluating the environmental adaptability of a nearly zero energy retrofitting strategy designed for Dutch housing stock to a Mediterranean climate. Energy & Building, 169, 366-378. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.03.079
McCabe, A., Pojani, D., Broese van Groenou, A. (2018). The application of renewable energy to social housing: A systematic review. Energy Policy, 114, 549-557. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.12.031
Wallbaum, H., Ostermeyer, Y., Salzer, C., & Escamilla, E. Z. (2012). Indicator based sustainability assessment tool for affordable housing construction technologies. Ecological Indicators, 18, 353364. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.12.005
Oyebanji, A. O., Liyanage, C., & Akintoye, A. (2017). Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for achieving sustainable social housing (SSH). International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6, 216227. doi:10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.03.006
Wiesel, I., Davison, G., Milligan, V., Phibbs, P., Judd, B., & Zanardo, M. (2012). Developing sustainable affordable housing: a project level analysis. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI). AHURI Final Report No. 183 UNSW-UWS Research Centre.
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