Living in Davao City for quite some time made us realize that there are a lot of cultural practices and language interruptions that are taking place in the city. People use English as a medium for communication when foreigners communicate with the locals. Foreign people think that our language and culture is unique. Filipinos are known to be naturally hospitable and can easily adapt to a new emerging trend. The communication keeps both parties going but an interruption to language and cultural difference is evident when one party tries to adapt to a new environment.
As locals of Davao City and students of the Humanities and Social Sciences strand, we felt the curiosity building in the inside of us especially in the area of its linguistic and cultural manifestation. Indian Nationals to be specific are settling down and is dominating our city to study medicine. Their ability to adapt our language and cultural practices made us see the unique disparity between the two cultures. Language binds the people living in a certain community and their cultural practice makes their living efficient.
The adaptation of culture and language of Indian Nationals in Davao City is an expanding issue. According to an interview conducted by Sunstar Davao (2017) to an Indian National, there are a lot of reasons why they choose to settle in Davao City.
Aside from studying Biology and Medicine in Davao City, here are three considerations why they are dominating the city and that is because of our medium of instruction, our tropical climate which is almost the same with them, the affordable education and easy application for visa. Among these, they also chose Davao City because it was known as one of the safest cities in the world (Pojas, 2017).
Their way of adapting our way of living especially on linguistic approach sets the use of English on an intercultural communication. Through language, an effective means of forming a person is evident (Tormosheva, 2009). Organizations in foreign countries are required to include international communication on the implementation of their respective communication policies through the cooperation of international campaigns, assisting foreign investors in a particular country, company advising and assisting, authorized foreign communications, and even the international programs for the management and prevention of crises (Baudoin, 2001).
The role of intercultural communication brings the special role of English language as an intermediary language for communication. In a model designed by Joost B?cker and Erik Poutsma, there are four factors affecting a global cultural diversity in leadership: global framework, intercultural competencies, intercultural sensitivities and cultural intelligence. Philippines is rich in indigenous languages which are related but extensively different. The closely-related lowland languages are related diverse. The linguistic diversity is a problem perceived in the Philippines for it hinders effective communication among ethnic groups and the foreign nationals.
English became the language of the Philippines as it conquered the population and later on dominated education, media, government and even businesses. In the spread of Tagalog as the national language, English still dominates and is a source of massive borrowing into Tagalog and other Philippine languages (McFarland, 2008).
According to Martin et al (2002), the expanded interest in local history transformed into a deeper sense that covers local environment in all aspects of the human activity. According to Lim (2008), the thrust of global development resulted to the destruction of many traditional settlements lacking the sensitivity to the diversity of local cultures which are related to geography and on the other hand rely on traditions formed over time to operate and manage place. People had seen the improvements of Davao City in its resources, culture, modernization, tradition and most especially laws that are implemented which people are eager to aim and ensure the safety and betterment of the city (Salon, 2017).
Given the disparity between the two cultures and a difference in language, the need to understand each others well-being should be prioritized by identifying the language and cultural gap in adapting the norms of the society which led to the adaptation of new culture and language. Furthermore, a simulation of the study is needed to know if adapting a language and culture of a different race could be possible. The findings of the study will benefit the students, the teachers, the school staffs and the community. The study does not promote any equality or discrimination on Indian culture and language same as the Filipinos.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore and understand the experiences of Indian Nationals living in Davao City in adapting the language and cultural practices of the locals from their daily experiences.
The study is anchored on the following theories:
Discourse Theory and Intercultural Communication. Intercultural communication is a tool used on forming a multicultural society to reduce ethnic and confessional tensions (Timoschuk, 2010). Culture is the way of living. Wang, Brislin, Wang, Williams and Chao (2000) defined culture as the human part of the environment. It is a social system which comprises the values, norms and ways of behaving in a human society. Communication is a one-way process of transmitting communication in the following words the process of communication includes transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills, knowledge, by using symbols, words, pictures and figures. (Hassan S., 2010).
The expressively and vividly discursive turn in modern society was presented in a monograph by Russian philosopher V.A Kutyrev in a statement: Discourse is the statement together with social practice to which it belongs and carries itself. Discourse is the use of language in communication.
According to Duff and Talmy (2011), more competent members of society can help learners acquire second language cultural knowledge.The discourse theory was proposed by the discourse French philosopher and sociologist Michel Foucault (1926-1984). He was convinced that the world is structured by knowledge (Schneider, 2013). Therefore, Intercultural communication theory tried to identify how individuals accommodate their verbal and non-verbal behavior during an interaction (Nakayama and Judith, 2007).
Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory. The conceptual integration of the study was anchored and addressed in the study Becoming Intercultural: Integrative Theory of Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation (Kim, 2001). Cross cultural adaptation has been extensively investigated. According to Kim (2001), the core term, cross-cultural adaptation is introduced to consolidate the various other terms used to highlight specific facts of the experiences that immigrants go through in an unfamiliar culture. All strangers in an unfamiliar environment take a cross-cultural adaptation establishing a relatively stable relationship with the society and environment. Even short term missionaries or tourists should be concerned in building a healthy connection with the native population (Kim, 2001).
Li et al (2009) described that the array of differences international students face when they cross culture leads to culture shock, or a lack of knowledge regarding the cultural or social cues of the host country. Culture plays a big role in communication.
Culture shock also brings with it a feeling of maladjustment or homesickness, leading international students to feel as though they do not belong in the host country as what Hendrickson, Rosen, and Aune (2001) discovered in their study of international students friendship networks. As Dunne (2009) highlighted domestic students often feel a great deal of anxiety in communicating across culture, cite a high level of effort in facilitating successful interactions across culture, and feel they are not able to fully reflect their true identities within these interactions.
Importance of the Study
We believe that as we give attention to the cultural and linguistic adaptation, the following fields will appreciate to the final outcome of the study: firstly the Indian Nationals/students who are having difficulties on adapting to the new environment theyre into. Second, the people and the locals living in the society or community that may be able to appropriately deal with the norms and give considerations on the implications. Lastly, to the future researchers who might want to dissociate and consider recommendations on the content and context of the study for future research purposes.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is constrained by the following factors that might affect the output: participants, content and analysis of data. The study is focusing only on the Indian Nationals living in Davao City that will served as the specific participant in the study. . Our participants shall only cover Indian Nationals that are settling in our city for quite a long time and those who are new in our city. Although our participants will also be our focus in this study, we dont consider influencing them on any aspects.
The second is content. The study shall only be conducted inside Davao City where Indian Nationals are living and therefore does not promote any cultural, political, and psychological manifestations. The content will only be coming from the gathered responses made by the participants and any unnecessary added content are discouraged.
Lastly, the analyzed data will be only used for the conduct of the research. Data gathzred will be confidential to protect the participants. The study does not recount any possible outcomes and effects on adapting a new culture and language.