CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Background and Rationale
World Health Organization (WHO) is specialized agency that is concerned with international public health. WHO states that diarrhea is one of the prominent causes of deaths on children ages five years old and below (N.D., 2017). This disease can be developed through tainted water, drinking water and a result of poor sanitation that can lead to rigorous dehydration, fluid loss and death. Commonly affected by this illness are children, malnourished persons or people having impaired immunity, more than that, some bacteria lend a helping hand but other times they are damaging and triggering diseases like diarrhea (Vidyasagar, 2015). There are many varieties of bacteria some of these can be an agent of diarrhea such as Proteus Mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and Bacillus cereus(B. cereus). According to American Society for Microbiology (2018), P. mirabilis gram-negative bacteria strain that is a destructive pathogen that can cause diarrhea and other illness and disease. P. mirabilis strains were located in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, soil, and even in the aquatic area (Jordan et al., 2014). This type of bacteria is an enteric bacterium and it can also found in the fecal material of the infected person. (Jordan et al., 2014). Additionally, P. mirabilis can cause gastroenteritis which is present if the diarrhea prolonged (Hamilton et al., 2018). On the other hand Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a form of bacteria that is positive- gram. It is mainly found in contaminated food, specifically in meat and poultry, fish, milk and soil which can cause diarrhea (Bottone, 2018). B. cereus is a pathogen that produces toxins that causes diarrhea to the target victim. This type of bacteria causes discomfort of abdominal, rectal tenses, and known to cause nausea, and watery diarrhea (Tajkarimi, 2007).
On the contrary, there are lot of people that relies on herbal medicines and plant extracts that are said to be safe to cure diseases, herbal plants are known to be the first agents to combat diseases and maintain good health.
Among them, Anonang is one of the herbal plants that is said to be having the potential antioxidant properties. (Hebbar, N.D.). Anonang is one of the Ayurvedic medicine used in India. Based on data showed in a study in India, there are 72 000 plants estimated for having medicinal properties but only 3000 of them where recognized and tested. Foremost indigenous system, Anonang is one of the old therapeutic plants known to possess a lot of health benefits. Its fruits, leaves, seed and bark is known to use as anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-duretic, anti-inflammatory antidyspepsia etc,. (Jhamkhande, 2013)
However, the paper would like to give emphasis on the Anonang bark extract as antibacterial agent. The researchers would like to know the effectiveness of Anonang bark also known as Cordia Dichotoma to certain bacteria such as P. mirabilis (negative gram bacteria) and B. cereus (positive gram bacteria) which both cause diarrheal illness. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of C. Dichotoma will be provided to give information about the plant that will benefit the researcher to determine its efficiency as antibacterialagent for the selected bacteria. The present work and theories was undertaken to validate the folks use in the treatment of diarrheautilizing scientific methods.
The researchers aim to ascertain the efficiency of Anonang tree (Bark Extract) on Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus Cereus. After all the experiment is done there is a significant effect on Anonang tree (Bark Extract) to the Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus Cereus.
Despite that we researching the efficiency of Anonang tree (Bark Extract) there are factors that will hindrance it. For Example, error while doing the experiment, source of our bacteria, cost, and the final outcome of our experimentation. Thus, sometimes our school schedule and the experimentation is overlapping each other.
We researchers will do everything we can to finish and present this research to our panel of judges. We make sure to separate or have a concrete timeline for the schedule of our experimentation and study.
Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of C. Dichotoma will be provided to give information about the plant that will benefit the researcher to determine its efficiency as microbial agent for the selected bacterias.
there is no significant difference imposed by the Anonang bark extract (Cordia Dichotoma) on the strains of bacteria
there is no significant difference on the strain of P. Mirabilis strain of bacteria while having significant difference on strain if B. Cereus
there is a significant difference imposed by the Anonang bark extract (Cordia Dichotoma) on the bacterial strain
there is a significant difference on the strain of P. Mirabilis while having no significant difference on strain of B. Cereus
1.3 Conceptual framework
The researchers examined and experimented on the efficiency of Cordia Dichotoma on the bacteria strains and are further explained through the diagram below :
1.4 Significance of the Study
The Study of using Cordia Dichotoma tree; specifically the bark (Anonang) as antibacterial to Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus Cereus is essential for developing a more depth knowledge in the prevention of diarrhea. Since these bacteria mentioned earlier are an agent of diarrhea, the study will be a significant for patients with diarrheal condition. Diarrhea is widely known condition that the researchers giving quality study to develop more solution to this problem. In the earliest records of civilization, the right procurement was obscured. Until diarrhea was a ubiquity and deaths are accumulating, the Modern era takes place with high development of technology subsequently through the progress of researches that study the treatment and the causation of the disease. Different studies of medicinal plants which were highly yielded as one of the effective agents to cease the number of deaths cause from diarrhea. As one of these studies, the main importance is to give contribution to health researches. For Government health agencies and Medical specialists from around the world, it can help them to find alternative and affordable ways to find cure for this particular disease. Moreover, this study can be a help for future researchers for their references and further depth studies pertaining to this phenomena. Overall, this study as a whole will be a help to the contribution of new knowledge to maintain or manifest people healthy life.
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The research study was conducted at the University of the East. This study is limited only to those interested to recognize and to acquire a concept regarding to medicinal plants in diarrheal disease. The range of the study was from November 2018 to March 2019.
The coverage of this study will be focuses on the benefits of applying the Cordia dichotoma (C. dichotoma) tree particularly the bark of Anonang as utilizing of antibacterial agent for the particular corresponding bacteria in diarrhea such as Proteus Mirabilis (P. Mirabilis) a gram negative, this bacteria is non-pathogenic it determines that it will not be the cause of disease (Schaffer, Pearson, 2016) while the other bacteria is Bacillus Cereus (B. cereus) a gram positive, which the bacteria is pathogenic and it is the possible agent for the disease (Botonne, 2010).
Diarrhea is continuing a dominant obstacle of decease and can retain long-term consequences. Diarrhea disease can be originator of bacterial illness, food sensitivity, and acknowledgement to medications (Standfords Childrens Health, 2018). Although, through young children between the year of 2000 and 2015 the diarrhea deaths lessen naturally, while in the year of 2016 over 1 billion young children experienced diarrhea (Health Metrics, 2017) this indicated that the children remain alive still they not definitely healthy.
Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) declared that Cordia dichotoma (C. dichotoma) also known as Anonang in the Philippines, mostly all plant that parts of this have a benefits for medicinal objective. The researchers selected the bark of Anonang since it is unutilized as a medicinal plants. The researchers would like to distinguish the usefulness of the bark of Anonang furthermore to experiment regarding to the bark of Anonang as medicinal plants for diarrhea so that diarrhea disease will lessen soon as possible.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Ayurvedic medicine – is one of the world’s oldest holistic healing systems. It was developed more than 3,000 years ago in India. It’s based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a delicate balance between the mind, body, and spirit.
Bacillus Cereus – is a type of bacteria that produces toxins. These toxins can cause two types of illness: one type characterized by diarrhea and the other, called emetic toxin, by nausea and vomiting.
Bacterial illness – an infection caused by bacteria.
Cordia dichotoma – or Anonang is a small deciduous tree with a short bole and spreading crown usually a small tree growing 3 – 4 meters tall, though some specimens can reach a height of 20 meters or more.
Gram-negative bacteria- are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet dye in the Gram stain protocol.
Gram-positive bacteria is a bacteria classified by the color they turn in the staining method, this gives gram-positive organisms a blue color when viewed under a microscope.
Microbial- relating to characteristic of a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease or fermentation.
Proteus Mirabilis – is a type of bacteria which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization.
Diarrhea/diarrhea- a type of disease that can acquire through contact of person infected by certain bacteria, environment, drinking contaminated water, poor sanitation etc.
Bark- protective covering of a woody stem and roots of trees and other woody plants
Pathogen- any disease producing agent (specially a virus or bacterium or other organism)