Blue Ringed Octopus

Topics: Octopus

Micro distribution of Tetrodotoxin in two species of blue-ringed octopuses.

The study that took place is unknown due to the fact of having many years of studies involving Tetrodotoxin. (TTX) After years of studying the distribution of TTX, it is known for a fact that the 3 scientists got results after testing 6 male octopuses. 3 males of the H. Fascista and 3 males of H. lunulate, all octopuses were adults. The objective of this study was to find out how the TTX distributes throughout the octopuses and observe where the TTX is located in the octopus.

The method of this study was observing ten tissues of both octopuses H. lunulate and H. Fascista and it was observed by the scientists who used fluorescent light microscopy. Scientists collected 3 males in Fair light Beach and Manly Ferry Station in Manly Cove, New South Wales, and Australia while snorkeling as all three octopuses were caught by hand. The other 3 males were collected in a pet trade located in Bali, Indonesia.

The method for this scientific study is called Fluorescent microscopy. The method began with having the octopuses collected and were all placed in a small amount of seawater. Scientists later dissected the octopuses and collected their tissues. The tissues were stored, and as the procedure was going to begin, the slides were washed using phosphate-buffered saline before the tissues were viewed. The slides were incubated overnight in the lavatory. The next day, the slides were viewed using a BX16 fluorescent microscope. The results were that TTX presence was confirmed and was located in the digestive gland.

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Both species of octopuses had a very concentration of TTX. Results also showed that the TTX toxin was concentrated in secretory cells, after scientists concluded this result they stated that the toxin was suggested that both octopuses have transport or sequestration mechanism for the toxin TTX. It is also known for a fact that the TTX found in octopuses transports protein through the blood of the octopuses. However, in conclusion, both blue-ringed octopuses have control over the distribution of TTX.

How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

The objective of the study was how the blue-ringed octopus flashes its blue rings. During the experiment, there were 5 methods used which were spectrometry, physiology, electron microscopy, darken brightfield microscopy, and confocal microscopy. 1st method was, two deceased blue-ringed octopus skin samples, and measurements were taken and viewed through a petri dish. 2nd the method Iridophores were used through activation and were used in a solution called acetylcholine. The acetylcholine solution was applied along with the tissues of the octopus, while its measurements were exposed every 20 seconds. 3rd method the tissue samples were obtained and viewed and the results were captured by images. 4th method the blue-ring tissue was covered in polyester wax and the results of the tissues were stained after being dewaxed and were captured through a cannon camera. 5th method the tissues that were covered in polyester wax were cross-sectioned after the 4th method was dewaxed in a solution called ethanol series. The result of the five methods was the blue-ringed octopus can flash its rings without warning. After viewing and filming six of the octopus rings it was found that bright blue rings are exposed on any side of the octopus. As viewing the octopus rings closer it is found that as they spread their rings it results in the rings darken while being exposed to light and the color of the rings can either go darker or lighter. In conclusion of the study, the different studies of blue-ringed octopus samples and tissue gave the result of how they spread their rings when being disturbed.

Nocturnal mating behavior and dynamic male investment of copulation time in the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)

The objective of this last study was to view the behavior of the blue-ringed octopus when mating. During this study, 29 octopuses were viewed and observed by scientists in the lab. Their goal was to study their behavior when mating occurs. Results concluded that most octopuses spent their time under a shell hiding away from their mates. It resulted that more males approaching the females than the females the males. However, the studies and the different methods resulted that most individuals approaching each other equally during mating.

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Blue Ringed Octopus. (2022, May 10). Retrieved from

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