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Biology Practical topic 1

IMRAD
Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion

What should the complete order of sections be?
Title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, literature cited, tables, figure legends, and figures

Title Page
-Name of experiment or exercise
-Your name
-Name of lab
-Partners
-Name of class
-Date experiment done
-Date report submitted
SHOULD BE DONE ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER

Abstract
-This is a single, tightly written paragraph the briefly summarizes the major elements of the lab report
-A minimum of one sentence each should be devoted to your objectives, methods, results, and conclusion
-You should write the abstract after the rest of the report is complete (it will be easier)
-Summary
SHOULD BE DONE ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER

Introduction
-supplies background information (definitions)
-may provide a theoretical basis and historical context for the work done in the lab (previous experiments/findings)
-may be necessary to cite information that has been published in research articles or books
-A good introduction indicates why the work was undertaken and why it is interesting
-toward the end of this section you should explicitly state your hypothesis or objectives and some predictions that fit the hypothesis (last paragraph)

Materials and Methods
-Describe the procedures that enable you to collect your data
-A simple listing of materials is inappropriate
-You should include the details that would permit someone to repeat your work based on their readings of this section (detailed enough for another scientist to be able to do it)
-The methods will come from a lab manual/handout
-Using the date/time depends on the study and if it matters
-Write in past tense
-the most straightforward to write and a good place to begin your report

Results
-Core of the report
-where you present your findings
-Usually in the form of numerical date
-Sometimes raw data may be presented but it is more common and useful to provide data that has been condensed to some degree
-if you are presenting calculated means, don’t forget to include some measure of date variability (standard deviations)

Results-Tables
Tables may be needed to organize large groups of numbers, listings.
-A table heading is a terse indication of table contents. It is usually a single sentence fragment and may for example lack a verb.
-Restrict your use of horizontal lines and never use vertical lines
-use superscripts and footnotes to provide additional information about the contents of the table
-each table should be on its own piece of paper

Results-Figures
Figures (graphs, pictures) can be particularly useful to display trends in data. It is not enough, however to simply refer readers to tables and figures .
-each figure should be centered on its own separate piece of paper
-figures should be printed in portrait mode (not landscape)

Results-Verbally Expressed
Results must be verbally expressed in the results section
-All of the data is not equally important, draw the readers attention to particularly noteworthy data or the presence of meaningful trends.
-if possible support this with statistical analyses, keeping in mind that statistical significance may conflict with your sense of biological significance
-The text of the results section should summarize the data, but stop short of interpreting their meaning or drawling major conclusions about their importance

Discussion
-Interpret your data and evaluate the meaning of your results (analyze the results)
-was your hypothesis, as stated in the introduction supported by the data?
-dont be afraid to support negative data (lack of relationship among variables)
-In some cases negative outcomes are more interesting and important than positive and predictable findings
-What do the results mean
-How findings fit into the big picture of things
-future experiments
-The last paragraph of this section should be a strong statement of the take home message

Literature Cited
-All citations that appear in the body of your lab report must be listed in this section
-Will use the author year format to arrange the citations
-List the papers in alphabetical order based on the first others last name
(research articles, book, lab manual, edited volume, web document, electronic journal, electronic correspondence)

Figure legends
-every figure requires a separate figure legend
-figure legends should provide enough information to allow the reader to interpret the figure. May consist of several sentences
-placed below the graph

Plagiarism
-to steal and pass off as ones own (the ideas or words of another)
-To present as ones own an idea or product derived from an existing source

In any scientific paper what is the purpose of the introduction?
-The purpose of the introduction is to give background information of the content in the paper, also to define any words that may be unknown and unusual to the reader also the objective and hypothesis

Do you think that dates always need to be mentioned in a scientific paper?
no, only if it affects outcome of experiments

Why does the materials and methods section contain highly detailed information?
-this section contains highly detailed information because it explains exactly how the case study was conducted and exactly what was used and the dates of when the study was conduction.
-Also, this section provides information on who was able to be a part of the study and who was excluded and how this was chosen

Why does the paper use statistics (averages) instead of telling you the actual numbers for each separate outcome?
the paper uses statistical averages because it is showing all the tests and the outcomes in a broad number to be able to show all the different cases and scenarios together

What information is included in a full citation?
page number, author, publisher, year

How does the literature cited section differ from the internal citations?
the literature cited section gives more detailed information at the end. the internal citation is given throughout the readings with specific detail

Why do you think a lit cited section is important for a scientific paper
the lit cited section is important for a scientific paper because it credits every scientist who had a part of the experiment

T/F Published date that is discussed must be cited both as an internal citation and in the literature cited section of a paper
true

T/F It is acceptable to paraphrase information from a source as long as that source is listed in the literature cited section of your paper
false- it is acceptable to paraphrase information from a source as long as that source is listed in the literature cited section of your paper and if you have citations after the paraphrase

T/F Material you have written yourself can be directly used in another context, assignment, or paper without being considered plagiarism
false- material you have written yourself can be directly used in another context, assignment, or paper without being considered plagiarism as long as your cite where you have used the information from

T/F in a scientific paper it is not necessary to cite information gained from online websites or quoted from personal communication
false- in a scientific paper it is necessary to cite information gained from online websites or quoted from personal communication

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