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Biology Experiment Report Paper

Words: 1914, Paragraphs: 69, Pages: 7

Paper type: Report , Subject: Biology

1500011334759100972820Date due: friday week 8

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150001133475455004865370Egg Osmosis Biology Experiment

Term 2, 2019

7340036300Egg Osmosis Biology Experiment

Term 2, 2019



Osmosis is the theory of passive diffusion across the semi permeable membrane that transfers to a higher concentrated solution of ion (Vanstone, 2018). To investigate this theory process, an egg has been put to test to identify whether the egg would have a passive processing with different amounts of ion solutes – including another solution with added chemicals.

Sugar solute has lower amounts of ion than salt solutes when they have the same weight because of a measure called molarity. As to the amount of sugar molecules within the solutions being lower when the same weight of solute is added, this could leave a result of a smaller reaction of osmosis than the experiment with salt.

In addition to the experiment, apple juice was another solution for the eggs. This is to identify whether there would be other chemical reactions to the egg. Saccharide chemicals and sodium are contained in apple juice. These chemicals however, are known to not surpass the semipermeable membrane – this experiment would identify if these theories are correct.

An egg has been an alternative due to the ability and similarity of a single cell, it contains concentrated proteins and water – having a comparable membrane and an achievable concentration to distribute the ion solutes (“Osmosis Eggs”, n.d.).

Research Question

Do the other substances in fruit juice affect the amount of osmosis (of the egg) when sugar levels are equal at room temperature in a laboratory?

Original Experiment

The original experiment conducted was from the egg osmosis experiment in Term 1.

The original egg osmosis experiment demonstrated the different volumes of an egg through distilled water and salt concentrated water – the alternative of seawater was to use 5 grams of salt in 100mL of deionised water. This showed how the mass of the egg could both decrease and increase.

Modifications to the Method:

The original experiment showed the process of osmosis using altered salt solutions, transforming the egg into an isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic outcome. As to modify this experiment, sugar solute mixed with other chemicals is to be examined whether it makes an impact more than the sugar concentrated water. The original experiment consisted of salt solutions – having more amounts of ion molecules than the modified experiment. This experiment is altered from the original; therefore, the data results would be reasonably reliable. This is to develop a relevant research question; investigating if a similar solution mixed with other chemicals would have a further reaction of osmosis.

Refined by:

Dividing each egg into three pieces and finding the average of the before and after process would outline a clear and precise understanding of the egg osmosis result. This will provide sufficient data to calculate the mean, standard deviation and percentage error as it is trialled three times.

Eggs will be soaked in distilled water, sugar water and fruit juice for three days instead of one. This will provide more time to have a more impacted result of osmosis.

Eggs have three days prior instead of one day to dissolve in vinegar – having most of the shell removed from the egg. However, this would also have more effect on the egg as it could possibly infuse in, being part of the osmosis process.

Extended by:

Investigating the process of osmosis with another ion substance; sugar water. This may have less of an effect than salt solution therefore, the egg is left in for longer.

Having another solution with added chemicals. This would identify whether the added chemicals (such as sodium) would affect the process of osmosis.

Safety and Ethical Considerations

Having to consider being safe and ethical, this experiment will be:

Conducted on an egg as it is an appropriate substitution of a singular cell that is ethically friendly

Investigated with gloves on to avoid infections or contamination from hazardous chemicals

Considered not spilling liquids on the floor as it could be hazardous if someone slips

The Data

For the analysis of this experiment, the following data has calculated:

The mean – this provided the best measure of central tendency as this gives the overall average on all three outcomes

Standard deviation – this identified the differences and distances of the three masses from the average

Percentage error – this calculated the ± difference from the mean showing in a percentage

Sample Calculations

Calculation Example

Mean x= ?xn= total mass of all three egg piecesnumber of egg pieces

x= 2.09+2.27+3.213

x= 3.21

All other calculations are will be calculated by excel

Standard Deviation All standard deviation calculations were calculated by using the website:

Using the formula:

?= 1n-1i=1n(xi-x)2

?= 0.60

Percentage Error % error = ?x?100% error = 0.62.52?100% error = 0.23809524?100% error = 23.809524% error ?23.8Figure 1 Processed Data from the effects of the modified egg osmosis experiment; distilled water, sugar water, and fruit juice

Egg no. Egg Mass

DH2O Sugar H2O Apple Juice

Beginning Time Approx. after 72hrs Beginning Time Approx. after 72hrs Beginning Time Approx. after 72hrs

1 2.09 2.80 4.80 3.52 3.91 4.40

2 2.27 2.05 3.91 4.28 4.72 6.25

3 3.21 1.86 2.07 1.87 6.70 3.51

Mean 2.52 2.24 3.59 3.23 5.11 4.72

Standard Deviation 0.60 0.50 1.39 1.23 1.44 1.40

Percentage Error 23.80 22.30 28.10 29.60 38.70 38.00

Data is measured in grams and rounded to the hundredths decimal, Percentage Error is rounded to the tenths decimal.

Figure 2

Analysis of Data

The data shown in the standard deviation and the percentage error, has revealed that the distilled water had a higher precision of egg osmosis. However, the range of the standard deviation and percentage error had a result of x± 0.5 – 0.6 and 22.3% – 23.8%. As for the sugar H2O and fruit juice, the standard deviation had a larger difference than the distilled solution – exceeding over 1. However, due to the egg pieces not obtaining the same mass before being placed within the solutions, this could misinterpret the precision and not be ideal for finding the standard deviation. As to the percentage error, both also had a larger error (>28%). This revealed that this experiment conducted may potentially have been an inaccurate experiment.

Discussion of Trends

By observing both the table and graph, it has suggested that the egg osmosis experiment has reacted in an unexpected pattern. It shows the three eggs’ change of mass after 72 hours, and the mass has all decreased. With a decrease of 0.28g for distilled H2O, 0.36g for sugar H2O, and 0.39g for fruit juice, it follows a pattern that as more saccharides convene with the egg, the more molecules diffuse out into the solution. However, distilled water also consisted in following the trend. Though it doesn’t contain saccharides or ion, the average mass of the egg had decreased from 2.52g to 2.24g – a difference of 0.28 grams.

The larger percentage errors may suggest the experiment conducted had either imprecise data collection or random biological occurrences. All egg mass’ data had a percentage error range of 23.8 to 38.0 with the fruit juice being the highest percentage range. This identified the impreciseness of all the data collected which led to an unexpected pattern.


With further research, it is identified that sugar dissolved into water makes the solution water have lower water potential. Osmosis would then equalise the two sides of the membrane’s water potential by releasing concentrated water out of the egg into the sugar solute (Essays, 2018 & Wikipedia, 2019). Concentration water molecules had a larger amount than ion. This resulted in a diffusion of concentrated water molecules out into the solute instead of the ion diffusing into the egg.

However, a perplex situation occurred when the mass of the egg (that was placed in distilled water) had decreased instead of increasing. Diffusion is the effect of higher concentrated water particles moving to a lower concentration of ion molecules (Pressbooks, n.d.), resulting in a questionable outcome of the distilled water experiment.


The limitations to this conducted egg osmosis experiment are the differences from the overall mean. The standard deviation and percentage error justified the impreciseness and uncertainty of the data from analysing the given evidence.

Before conducting the experiment, releasing the egg shell from the hardboiled egg required vinegar. As the egg had been left in vinegar, the vinegar may have diffused into the egg to balance the concentration gradient – therefore releasing concentrated molecules when submerged in the solute water.

As of the egg pieces placed within the distilled water, sugar water, and fruit juice, the two-tailed P values had revealed that all three data are not statistically significant.

Figure 3

Solution The Two-tailed P Value Is/Not Statistically Significant

Distilled H2O 0.9013 Not statistically significant

Sugar H2O 1.5243 Not statistically significant

Fruit Juice 0.8109 Not statistically significant

As figure 2 indicated a difference between the beginning and final mass of each solution, this t test (figure 3) had identified the difference to not be statistically different – making the conducted experiment to not be caused by something other than chance.

The reliability of the data lacked due to the inconsistency of the percentage error. The percentage error has identified that the variables were uncontrollable and random. However, the standard deviation has suggested that as before being placed in the solutions, it consists of being more differentiated (± 0.6, ± 1.39, ± 1.44) than after taking the eggs out of the solution (± 0.5, ± 1.23, ± 1.4). This limits the data from finding the accurate outcome of the mass difference.

Sources of Error

Effecting Reliability

The technology used to identify the mass of the egg pieces had occasionally measured imprecisely by ± 0.01 – 0.02g. Therefore, the electronic measurement effected the accuracy of the mass.

The divided egg pieces had been placed into the same cups and solution therefore, the data collected had not been randomly selected.

Effecting Validity

Egg was still wet whilst weighing so it may have potentially affected the accuracy leaving a result of an overestimate mass. Due to the wetness of the egg pieces, water residue had soaked into the napkin – also resulting in possible added mass.

There had been remained excess egg shell after placing it in vinegar. Therefore, to remove all of the egg shell, it consisted in vigorously rubbing it off – causing an accident of taking off the extra cell membrane that may result in inaccurate osmosis.

Suggested Improvements and Extensions

To improve this modified experiment, it is suggested to conduct the experiment three times instead of dividing the egg into three, to know the outcome of a whole egg. This would consist of a cell membrane surrounding the whole surface area and a minimal percentage error as it is a larger, untouched egg.

To extend the experiment, placing the egg in vinegar for a longer time period could result in a shell-less egg. However, as the vinegar effected the result of the eggs’ mass, an improvement to the experiment would be to remove the eggshell without acids and chemicals – this could be hand-picking off the shell.

Though extending the experiment with identifying whether other chemicals could affect the egg’s mass more, it should be further investigated what the chemicals would do – redirecting the experiment to using a solution that contains chemicals that is known to actually effect osmosis.


To conclude, this experiment conducted had shown inaccurate representation of osmosis especially the outcome of the distilled water mass. The trends followed in an unexpected pattern, consisting of having reasonably large errors. However, this shows how unpredictable biological occurrences could be, though this experiment may have been imprecise.


Vanstone, E. (2018). What is Osmosis. Retrieved from Eggs. Retrieved from

Essays, UK. (November 2018). The effect of concentration of sugar on osmotic activity. Retrieved from

3.1 The Cell Membrane – Anatomy and Physiology. Retrieved from

Water potential. (2019). Retrieved from

QuickCalcs, GraphPad. (2018). T test calculator. Retrieved from

About the author

This academic paper is composed by Samuel. He studies Biological Sciences at Ohio State University. All the content of this work reflects his personal knowledge about Biology Experiment Report and can be used only as a source for writing a similar paper.

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