Be careful to write your essay with your words; otherwise, you are committing plagiarism. The definition of plagiarism based on Encyclopedia Britannica (as found in Dhammi & Haq, 2016), is the act of taking the writing of another person and passing them off as one’s own .Plagiarism seems to have been a deep-rooted issue in academic writings since 1621 owing to its existence in the Oxford English dictionary. Nevertheless based on academics it has been pointed out as a kind of cheating, it has become common among students (James, Miller& Wyckoff, 2017).
There are some studies associated with this academic misbehavior that show its probable causes. They have found, plagiarism is a consequence of two undeniable causes, which are cultural differences and language barriers that can lead to penalty as an inevitable effect.
The first cause that may result in plagiarism is the violator`s culture. It has been seen this violation appears that to be unintentionally due to one`s cultural heritage. It means, their mindset is formed to put themselves instead of scholars, and copy their materials neither permission nor intention of cheating.
They define plagiarism according to both their cultural values and traditions. Also, above all sometimes, they learn with using of scholars’ ideas without citation, they can show their respect to them (James, Miller& Wyckoff, 2017). For instance, based on a study among 77 Japanese undergraduates, they usually were encouraged to imitation of litterateurs as a role model without any mention of their names. (Cameron, Zhao &McHugh, 2012). Besides, there are some evidences that some writers such as Chinese students have been trained with standard answer.
James, Miller, and Wyckoff report Chinese students receive the correct answers from their instructors or textbooks and memorize them instead of any creativities to get the highest score. Therefore, these two predisposing factors respectively cultural heritage and standard answer arising from cultural backgrounds may expose students to plagiarize without any fear of its outcome (2017).
The second determinant cause of plagiarism is being the second language. While the majority of scientific publication has been written in the English language, the number of non-native English scientist writers is not minority (Cameron, Zhao, & McHugh, 2012). So, almost they are not proficient enough in English skills to structure their manuscript in a plausible level; as a result, the first potent factor that influences non-native students is language barriers that brings about misusing of materials deliberately or unintentionally. Besides, based on a survey at The University of Texas the lack of proper English skills bring about writing an academic essay in English consumes time three or four times more than in their native languages; thus, this time pressure can be an explicable reason that a non-native writer may be exposed to some misbehaviour ways as plagiarism (Cameron, Zhao, & McHugh, 2012). Therefore, a lack of knowledge both in grammatical range and in English vocabulary on one hand and time limitation to prepare an essay on the other can make students prefer to endanger their status by committing plagiarism.
The penalty is considered a significant effect of plagiarism. As respects plagiarism is a kind of academic unethical behavior so, because of advocating principal owners rights, the types of penalties are run by policies of publishing companies and the educational system. The first step of penalty could be academic text re-writing hat even can lead to the most severe of its kind such as suspensions and expulsions of writers (Dhammi &Haq, 2016). For example, a non-English postdoctoral fellow in 2009 reports about someone who committed plagiarism; as a result, he was fired from the school (Cameron, Zhao, & McHugh, 2012). Also, based on the University Canada West policy, penalties for academic misconduct can be executed at the three-level respectively, the course level, the program level and the university level for attaining the maximum level of honesty in academic performance (2017). Therefore, it is not far from mind that the academic future of violators is in irrecoverable risk owing to the effect of plagiarism.
In conclusion, with all that said, plagiarism could be result from cultural differences and linguistic proficiency that bring about penalty as an effect. However, even if these determinant factors lead to plagiarism to be done unintentionally, penalty will be an incontrovertible consequence due to both defending the authors right and protecting academic standards. It seems raising awareness about the causes of plagiarism and considering its negative effects can decrease the rate of misusing of academic materials and increase their credibility.