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Assignment Power System Paper

Words: 2051, Paragraphs: 199, Pages: 7

Paper type: Assignment , Subject: Stem Cells





STUDENT ID : 1700 6532






1.0 Background

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Energy is one of the hot matters today. The energy industry currently shifting towards

switching from a typical or common source, fossil fuels to the renewable sources that are way

cleaner compare to the traditional fossil fuels, and it is becoming greater aggressive in the

international market. Electricity from solar is available at multi scales with many incentives,

simple and fast implementation processes. Photovoltaic s’ (PV) stre ngth is one of the most

promising rising technologies. PV system sizing includes the specified calculations of the

energy produced and suits with the preferred strength of current demand. The predominant

parameter that PV designers identify when designing a PV array is the load energy demand or

power utilization in (kWh). When describing a PV device in terms of components, it is logical

to use the power flow from the array aspect to the load side. However, when sizing a PV system,

need to think about the po wer demand first than thinking about the PV supply side. Thus, PV

device sizing starts at the load and proceeds backward to the PV array side.

1.2 Objective

A. To discuss the losses and benefits of solar systems.

B. To determine the PV sizing only on Module, Inver ter, and System Design with the

remaining parameters (Shading and Layout, Losses etc.) at default values.

1.3 Scope

For this assignment I will be focused on Dallas, Texas in United States of America (USA)

area . The reasons I choose Dallas, Texas USA is because in Dallas, the summers are hot and

muggy, the winters are cold and windy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically

varies from 39°F to 96°Fand is rarely below 26°F or above 102°F. So, this is very good for me

to varies the difference an d understanding behavior of solar for a different situation and

weather. In this assignment also, i will explain more on what are the solar is all about and also

will be discussing on what are the things need to look out on designing the solar system for

residential purpose at Dallas, Texas USA . All the information like weather, shading, layout ,

losses and else will be taken from NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM). Lastly, I will

explain and suggest in terms of des ign aspect and technical performance from the result that I

get from SAM .


2.0 Solar Energy and Module

Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sun’s power and it is famous of for

generating an electricity or heating and desalinating water. When daylight hits the cells, the

electrons will loose from their atoms. As the electrons waft via the cell, they generate

electricity . Photovoltaics (PV) additionally called solar cells, are electronic mechan ism that

change sunlight immediately into electricity. They have been invented in 1954 at Bell

Telephone Laboratories in the United States. Today, the PV is one of the rapid rising renewable

energy technologies and is prepared to play a key position in the future global electrical energy .

Solar PV installations can be combined to supply electrical energy on an industrial scale

or organized in smaller configurations for mini -grids or personal use. Using solar PV to energy

mini -grids is an exceptional way to bring electricity access to humans who do no t live close to

power transmission lines, mainly in developing countries with incredible solar electricity

resources. The fee of manufacturing photovoltaic panels has plummeted dramatically in the

closing decade, making them no longer only affordable but often the most inexpensive shape

of electricity. Solar panels have a lifespan of roughly 30 years and come in range of shades

depending on the what categories of materials used in manufacturing.

2.1 Inverter

The Solar Inverter is a basic system in any solar energy system. Its primary feature of the

inverter is to convert the Direct Current (DC) output of the photovoltaic panels into Alternating

Current (AC). The several electrical and electronic elements linke d in the circuit assist in the

transformation . This type of inverter aids in altering the DC into AC using from solar power.

In the situation of AC (alternative current) is the power that provide returned and out in internal

the circuit. Commonly , the AC i s used for household appliances. The rational why to use this

inverter as a prime to the everyday electric powered , then it is due to the fact the solar inverter

makes use of the solar energy which is accessible in adequate from the Sun is easy and also no

air pollution.

Inverters have evolved from much more than simply inverting the electrical currents of a

solar energy system . Inverters should continue to upgrade and deliver down cost, while keeping

its key qualities for a solar energy (reliability, effectivity & facets such as data monitoring) .

2.2 Solar System Design

On -grid solar systems are by away the common & generally used at residential and

businesses. This style does not need batteries and use usual solar inver ters and are connected

to the public electricity grid. Any extra solar power that you generate is exported to the

electrical energy grid and you will get paid a feed -in-tariff (FiT) or credit for the electricity you


An off -grid system is not conne cted to the electricity grid , so it requires battery storage.

An off -grid solar system has to be designed properly so that it will produce enough power

throughout the year and have enough battery capability to meet the home’s necessities , even in

the winte r when there is less sun light. The price for off -grid systems are a whole lot more

expensive than on -grid systems because of batteries and inverter and usually use the off -grid

are remote areas because far from electricity grid. However, battery prices are decreasing

quickly , so there is now a growing market for off -grid solar battery constructions even in cities

and towns.


All the result and details are from NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM).

3.1 Load -Usage

The table on the left shows the monthly electricity load

by an average home and the monthly AC system energy

produced by the solar PV system. The system AC

energy varies by month due to the four seasons in the

USA. As we can observe, the energy produced by Solar

PV system is not sufficient to fully provide for the


This system still requires an external power grid, also

known as Grid -Connected Systems, which what most

residential homes with Solar PV system ar e using.

Energy generation is at its peak April till July where its

summer in Dallas. We can observe a big drop in energy

generation during November when winter comes,

which has relatively low sunlight compared to summer.

Electricity load can be observed from the graph as the

highest load is used during summer time.

The graph on left s hows the monthly energy and load,

similar to the data used in the table on top. If we observe

the graph above, which shows the monthly energy and

load monthly, the hi ghest load consume is in July. As

we can see, the load graph sudden rise during summer.

This is may be cause of the hot weather, the user will

use more appliances such as air -conditioner to cool

them self. Because of that, the energy produces by our

solar system is not sufficient. In order to fix the

problem, user need to have a backup power and cannot

rely on solar system only.

3.2 Losses

The graph on the left shows the total percentage of

energy losses . As we can observe that losses from

AC inverter is the highest one this is maybe due to

the low irradiance levels, where the efficiency drops

off .

It can be measured that sizing an inverter efficiently

for its required motive is important if it is undersized,

there will no longer enough sufficient power ,

demanding further than its limit will shut it off , if it

is oversized, it will be a great deal much less efficient

(due to standing losses).

Next, loss from the module. The loss from module

can be caused from a few reasons such as mismatch

of solar cells, resistance of ribbon and band gap

energy (If a photon has more energy than the

required amount, then the extra energy is lost).

On the left shows the losses that also need to look out

for the area at Dallas, Texas USA. Firstly, Soiling

losses. The Soiling losses refer to loss in power rising

from snow, dirt, dust and other particles that cowl the

top or surface of the PV module.

Next, DC and AC wiring. DC & AC wiring loss

consists of the resistive losses in the cables and wires

that used at some point of the entire PV plant from

the PV which includes the total route from the PV

module to the primary power grid.

3.3 Ratings Performance

Table on the left show the performance from the

modules and inverters. For the modules, the cell

material is monocrystalline and its from SunPower

SPR -X21 -335 model where it able to produce up to

334.2W for a module and if for 14 quan tity it can go

up to 4.69KW. For the inverter, the input range will

be n100 -480 VDC and will be able to produce total

capacity of 3.85kW AC , wh ere the ratio of DC to AC

is 1.22.

Table on the left side show the Array table . Since we

have 14 modules, we can make it into 2 strings and

each string consists of 7 modules as rated on the table

above. For the losses in the array we need to focus

more on DC losses and soiling where this two will

give an effect to the array performance.

On the left side, we can see the table of performance

adjustment and graph of the annual energy

production. We can see that the graph is decreasing

year by year about 0.5%/year as stated in the table of

the performance adjustment.

The reasons of this happen is becaus e Crystalline

silicon modules placed in extreme climates showed

excessive degradation rates. For very cold climates,

panels subject ed to heavy wind & snow loads will

suffered the most.

On the other hand, panels in comparable climates

that were establish in a facade, removing the snow

load, had very little rates of degradation. At the other

extreme, panels in desert climates exhibited massive

drops in production over time close to 1% per year

basically due to excessive levels of UV exposure.

Panels in gre ater sensible climates such as the

northern United States had degradation rates as low

as 0.2% per year. Those panels should maintain 96%

of their manufacturing abilities after 20 years.

As a common solar enterprise rule of thumb, solar

panels last about 25 -30 years. However, this doesn’t

imply that they end producing electricity after 25

years it just means that electricity production has

declined by way of what manufacturers consider to

be a tremendous amount.

On the left showed the table of annua l results (in

year). The Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) is the

full quantity of shortwave radiation obtained from

above through a surface horizontal to the ground.

This cost is of unique interest to photovoltaic

installations and consists of both Direc t Normal

Irradiance (DNI) & Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance


Solar irradiance on a PV panel in the Plan of Array

(POA) is a mixture of direct solar rays, diffuse

irradiance and albedo (irradiation reflected through

the ground).The direct irradiance on a panel or Plan

of Array (POA) is the irradiation coming directly

from the sun improved by the cosine of the angle of

incidence . GHI is decrease than POA and Irradiance.

It indicates the significance of putting the panel at the

most efficient angle or usin g trackers that comply

with the sun during the day.

Lastly, showed that performance ratio of the modules

based on annual results is 0.8. Where this is pretty

good, because as we know that the performance ratio

is a measure of a PV plant that defines the

relationship between the real and theoretical energy

outputs of the PV plant. The frequent PV system with

an excessive Efficiency can obtain a total

performance ratio over 70% and for solar module

that primarily based on crystalline cells can even

att ain an excellent factor of 0.85 to 0.95.

3.4 Electricity Bill With and Without System

As we discussed insufficient energy to supply our

load, we need a backup power source from electric

company in Dallas, Texas such as Reliant Energy .

When we used other supply from electric company,

we must pay electricity bill to that company. Graph on

the left shows, electricity bill with and without the

solar PV system. Below is a table of electric usage and

bill for each month with and without solar PV systems.


For the conclusion, the Solar PV system give so much advantages to the users especially

when it comes to electricity bills. It also processes energy quietly because it converts energy

directly without mechanical part. The system also can be in stall anywhere with expected life

time about 25 to 30 years.

About the author

This sample is done by Scarlett with a major in Economics at Northwestern University. All the content of this paper reflects her knowledge and her perspective on Assignment Power System and should not be considered as the only possible point of view or way of presenting the arguments.

Check out more papers by Scarlett:

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Assignment Power System. (2019, Nov 23). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/assignment-power-system-best-essay/

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