As I am applying for a university place on the course Healthcare science, I was asked to produce some materials to demonstrate my interest. I was asked to choose from the list below and then choose two that I would be particularly interested. The list consisted of endocrine system disorders, nervous system disorders, muscular – skeletal disorders, respiratory system disorders, circulatory system disorders and cancer.
Endocrine disorders are a disease that effects the eight major glands throughout the body, such as the pancreas, adrenal gland, pituitary gland and the thyroid gland. One of the most common endocrine disorders that is found is diabetes. Nervous system disorders are a neurological disorder that effects either the structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities. Because of this, this can affect an individuals brain, spinal cord and other nerves for example: Alzheimers disease or cerebral palsy. Muscular Skeletal disorders is a disorders that is made up of injuries and disorders that effects an individuals movement and mobility such as the muscles in their legs, tendons and ligaments, for example: osteoarthritis. Respiratory system disorders are a medical term that effects the organs and tissues such as the lungs, which makes gas exchange harder than it usually is, for example: asthma. Circulatory system disorders are a disorder that involves the heart and blood vessels which keeps and individuals body functioning. Blockages in the arteries due to a build-up of cholesterol can lead to complications such as a heart attack or a stroke. Cancer is a defined as an abnormal growth that can either spread or stay in one place. From looking at the different types of disorders that I can choose from, I decided to focus on nervous system disorders such as Alzheimers and Muscular skeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Inherited traits are directly caused by genetics and those where it runs in the family. This can be brought on by either a recessive gene or a dominant gene. A recessive gene is where there needs to be two copies of the same abnormal gene for it to be present where as a dominant gene only needs one. Inherited traits can affect Alzheimers in a number of different ways. Inherited traits can cause gene mutation in an individual that could potentially have Alzheimers. It can lead to the mutation of PSEN 2, PSEN 3 and APP, which causes amyloid beta peptide to be produced. However, taking into account that the risk of an individual developing Alzheimer is genetically is very slim and represents less than a 10% chance of actually having the diseases but is more common in those over that age of 65. PSEN 2 and 3 are the most common when it comes to putting Alzheimers to a cause and is better known as Presenilin 2 and Presenilin 3. This is a protein that can cause itself to build up in the individuals brain and form a type of blockage or clump called an amyloid plaque that can cause the disease. APP is best known as a precursor molecule that results in the amyloid fibrillary form to be the main primary components of amyloid plaques found in the brain of an Alzheimer patient. Because of the build-up of amyloid plaque found in the brain it can lead to the death of nerve cells and depending on whether the Alzheimers is found in the early stage or whether it is found in the late stage. However, inherited traits do not have as big as an impact on an individual than Alzheimers does. Even though it can be classed as an inherited trait, it is made up of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic risk factors vary as it causes the body to attack itself and can affect the human leukocyte antigen and HLA-DRBI.
Diet can affect the two disorders that I have chosen in a number of different reasons. There are two different diets that can help Alzheimers from progressing, the mind diet and the Mediterranean diet. The mind diet breaks down into 10 healthy foods and 5 to avoid. The Mediterranean diet and the dash diet can reduce the risk of developing problems with thinking. For Rheumatoid Arthritis, the Mediterranean diet also can help with the delaying process and can help with inflammation but there is no specific diet for those with the disorder. The 1998 Acheson Report noted that people in the lowest socio economic groups consumed cheaper fatty foods and tried to reduce salt, fat, and sugar content. They also found that those who lived on low incomes eat less healthy and eat more ready meals, junk food and consume more processed food, which leads to greater health risks. World Health Organizations classed red meat and processed meat as a type of carcinogen and that people should consume no more than 50/70 grams of processed meat a day. However, even though there are some kind of diet to help individuals with the disorder, obesity can cause issues as well as individuals with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is overweight, a BMI of 30 to 39.9 is obese and a BMI of over 40 is severely obese.