A narrative technique in which characters representing things or abstract ideas are used to convey a lesson.
Repetition of a similar sound in a group of words. (sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy)
A brief reference of an event outside of the book.
Repetition of the same words or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses.
Word phrases and clauses in increasing importance
An overused saying or idea
An authors word choice for the quality of the sound of a character.
A word or phrase used in place of a term that might be considered harsh.
Deliberate and obvious exaggeration.
The formation of mental images through senses, similes, personifications, etc.
Incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
Two opposite situations or characters that exemplifies the contrast between them.
An understatement with a negation. (ex. You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician)
Not using the right words in a sentence.
A comparison of two unlike objects without using like or as.
One thing is used as a substitute for another with which it is closely identified (the White House)
A negative statement
The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its reference. (ex. “ding dong”)
A seemingly contradictory statement (ex. microsoft works)
A statement that’s a contradiction, a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth (ex. Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage.)
Giving an object human like characteristics
A humorous play on words to suggest a different meaning or application.
A comparison of two unlike objects or ideas using like or as.
Something that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention.
The orderly arrangement or words into sentences to express ideas.
The message of the book.
The means of creating a relationship or conveying an attitude or mood.
A word that is used that is not as strong as it could.
an expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context
a brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event
a word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing (y’all, ain’t)
An elaborate or unusual comparison
The implied meaning of a word
The literal meaning of a word
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced for the context (use of “…”)
The sudden flare into revelation of an ordinary object or scene
a complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows
the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage
A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work.
a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth
insertion of some verbal unit in a position that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety. (ex. For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart’s door, patiently waits)
the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part (ex. lend me your ears)
use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producing different, often incongruous, meanings (ex. Kill the boys and the luggage)