The Latin American literature writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez, using magical realism, in his writings repeatedly included a magical element to make a social evaluation of his life in Columbia. In his speech, he explains why Latin America was devised as a magical land that is not explained by North American or European logic. Marquez in “The Solitude of Latin America” furthers his purpose of the use of magical realism in literature and struggles of Latin America by effectively employing the use of ethos, logos, and pathos.
Oneway Garcia Marquez furthers his purpose is by using ethos. Near the beginning of his speech, Marquez states that, “… our southern lands of America, a strictly accurate account that nonetheless resembles a venture into fantasy .” He states in order for the audience to understand the reality of Latin American was not the same was experienced by the Europeans, whose history was much longer.
He also speaks of a “short and fascinating book ” in which he explains that present day novels of the time are not an accurate account of the reality of the state of Latin America.
Marquez goes on to say “…the Chilean Pablo Neruda, one of the outstanding poets of our time, enlightened this audience with his word. Since then the Europeans of good will-and sometimes those of bad, as well-have been struck, with ever greater men and historic women, whose unending obstinacy blurs into legend.” Here he uses a credible source in order to give information on his experience of not only literature but of social challenges of Latin America. Marquez continues by posing some compelling rhetorical questions. For example, he asks them “Why is the originality so readily granted to us in literature so mistrustfully denied us in our difficult attempts to social change?”
He effectively appeals to his audience through credible sources that although authors of the time gave wonderful magical accounts of Latin America and its society, it has been very difficult to achieve social change in those countries. Marquez continues speaking of his purpose by use of logos. He states that “General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, the theosophical despot of El Salvador who had thirty thousand peasants slaughtered in a savage massacre,…’ In stating this he is conveying an accurate account of a dictator in El Salvador to let the audience know some of the facts of what is going on in Latin America. Marquez continues to give accounts of dictatorships, war, and ethnocide that occur during that time. An example of these facts is when he states, “There have been five wars and seventeen military coups; there emerged a diabolic dictator who is carrying out, in God’s name, the first Latin American ethnocide of our time.”
Marquez also gives information of a president who died fighting a war alone, and two who died suspiciously in a plane crash in attempts to restore life and dignity to the people of these countries. He gives accounts of numerous women in Argentina who arrested while pregnant of whose children were adopted by order of the military because they tried to change things within their countries. Here Marquez uses facts by giving actual details of what people tried to do and what was done to them in Latin America. Marquez continues by posing some compelling rhetorical questions. For example, “Why do you think that the social justice sought by progressive Europeans for their own countries cannot also be a goal for Latin America, …?”
Marquez effectively appeals to persuade logic to the audience for social justice in Latin America, being different than that of European countries, should change, and then gives us a comparison when he speaks this, “The country that could be formed of all the exiles and forced emigrants of Latin America would have a population larger than Norway.” He says this to give an example of cause and effect of Latin America’s diverse society. Finally using pathos to further his purpose, Marquez states that, “Solidarity with our dreams will not make us feel less alone, as long as it is not translated into concrete acts of legitimate support for all the peoples that assume the illusion of having life of their own in the distribution of the world .” Marquez states this in order for his audience to have heartfelt emotions that dreams do not make you feel alone unless followed by acts and that nothing will be able to overcome the existence of life over death.
Marquez continues by answering a rhetorical question, “No: the immeasurable violence and pain of our history are the result of age-old inequities and untold bitterness, and not a conspiracy plotted three thousand leagues from our home.” He effectively uses emotion using powerful words to describe the violence and suffering that Latin America faces. Gabriel Garcia Marquez addresses the use of magical realism and the continued relationship between Latin America with the rest of the European countries including the differences between them and its social challenges. He believes that every race should be allowed a second opportunity to create its own utopia through declining the acceptance of its fate “… condemned to one hundred years of solitude will have, at last forever, a second opportunity on earth (388).”