United States requires an all-inclusive immigration reforms. The tough immigration climate comes despite forecasts of looming skill shortages due to demographic changes and declining interest by US students in science and engineering (West, 2011)
Above a quarter of United States technology and engineering companies started between 1995 and 2005 had an immigrant born founder. The Brookings institution concludes that the United States immigration priorities and outmoded visa system discourage skilled immigrants, sand hobble the technology intensive employers who would hire them.
Research shows that in 2005 businesses founded by foreigners produced $52 billion in sales and provided jobs for over 450,000 employees.
The employment impact of total immigration is much larger in good economic times and falls short of its average impact in bad economic times.
In 2009, foreign innovators produced more patents about 96,000 than American innovators 93,000, compared to last ten years in which 57% of all patents were awarded to innovators from United States. This implies that altering the composition of the immigration flow without increasing its size would result in a brain gain for the US.
Between economic years 2001 and 2004, the United States government amplified the yearly allotment of H-1B visas for technology and engineering students to 195,000. The underlying principle was that technology innovators were so significant for the United States long-term financial expansion that the figure set aside for those fields required to be high (West,2011).
The paper highlights that United States does not need restrictive immigration policy to pursue policies, which select highly-skilled immigrants. It is likely that new immigrants increase unemployment and reduce the participation in the labor force in United States.
However, the coefficients for science and technology immigrants remain stable in bad and good economic times.
Citizens should understand the complex nature of decision-making the United States democracy. Hollister (2007) says that there is also a need to recognize strategies of having a voice and positive impact. Public policy processes consist of research on the formulation and implementation of public policy usually limited to the American context emphasizing national domestic policy.
Hollister (2007) argues in favor of evidence-based policy advocacy in this journal. The need to understand the policy framework in the United States political system operates. The central premise of this journal remains relevant; that describing public problems and solutions as conservative or liberal ignores problem definitions and solutions that are considered centrist.
There are three kinds of policy, which are: good policy versus good politics, good policy versus bad politics and bad policy versus good politics. The three policy arenas in this journal include elected bodies, the courts and the streets. The courts play the role of adversarial arena, elected bodies use the process of consensus building and compromise. The streets allow for a public debate on policy in a less formal atmosphere.
The three kinds of policy-makers include delegates, trustees and politico. Delegates are representatives of a certain geographical area. Trustees advocate for a particular ideology, principle or value and they are not moved by public opinion. Politicos are mostly concerned with campaign, trappings, and benefits of office than the particulars of public policy.
The public policy-making process entails law-making process, budget process, rule-making, oversight and then finally sunset program or policy. There are various actors in the public policy-making process and they consist of special interest groups, state government departments, consumers, citizens and taxpayers. When the three actors agree, their power unites around the policy and it becomes a law. The journal thus articulates that if policies did not make public in some way it would be very difficult to discern the government’s intent in enacting the policy.
The one child policy has been controversial since its inception in 1979. In the past ten years the policy has allowed greater flexibility, allowing additional children under special situations while using minimal direct violence to enforce it.
The policy formation is often made under a particular set of political and economic realities. China’s one child policy originated as a population policy to limit fertility, thereby cutting state expenditures and later on become a family policy facilitating modernization.
In spite of these economic drawbacks there are reasons to be concerned about the continued implementation of the policy and its costs to women remain high. The policy places a great burden to women’s reproductive control. The position and treatment given to women underrates their social, political and economic status.
The findings of this article indicated that the one-child policy revives the feudal ideology valuing fecundity and encourages the traditional role definitions of women as household laborers and reproducers of men, despite the government’s intention to promote women as productive workers. It is important to note that neither the formation nor implementation of the one child policy has comprehensively taken into account the long-term strategic and practical interests of women and men. It is important to note that neither the formation nor implementation of the one child policy has comprehensively taken into account the long term and practical interests of women and men.
Health care systems are in their fourth consecutive year of double-digit increases and are expected to rise 22%. Costs for owners are predicted to rise 16% in the coming years, and double-digit increases will possibly continue through much of the decade, as the population ages and the demand for prescription drugs and expensive tests and specialists increases.
Many small businesses are establishing even more draconian cuts or dropping treatment in general only 65% of companies with fewer than 200 employees offered in the year 2004. As of 2001, 9.6million Americans, i.e. 26% of the nation’s total uninsured worked for or were reliant of employees of large firms.
Medicare covers a smaller portion of health care expenses than at any time since the program started. The aged spent 22% of their middle income for healthcare in 2000. The decentralization of accountability for healthcare from the federal government to states comes with substantial disparity in insurance coverage in United States.
Environmental policy can be ineffective in reaching its goals are clearly deficient. Effectiveness of the environmental policy entails the probability of success, the ability to continue to be relevant over a long period, flexibility to cope with changing situations (Rios, 2010).
This benchmark seeks to avoid conflicts and overlapping with other policies and being simple enough to be understood. In addition, an environmental policy that meets its goals at excessive cost is wasting societal resources that might be more efficient for other purposes (Rios, 2010). The majority of economic analysis of environmental policies in the United States is performed in the process of developing the policies themselves.
Strong communication channels and links between the various policy makers is a necessity for ensuring consistency within the environmental policy. Environmental policies should be subjected to ex ante analysis and debated as part of the evaluation criteria.
Environmental policy analysis and evaluation should pay enough attention to the question of how policy has dealt with the complexity of environmental protection in the United States.
The subsequent evaluation will raise questions about the appropriateness of the chosen policy strategies and policy instruments, given the, albeit reduced, level of complexity.
It is evident from the Eschenfelder (2011) article that the mindset and culture of nonprofit organizations has not been conducive to be thinking in terms of market forces. This implies that they have been lacking in taking strategic planning until recently when they had to form coalitions with other nonprofit organizations to distribute income and increase their grant base for additional competence and efficacy (Eschenfelder, 2011). Individuals can therefore articulate that the nonprofit organizations currently should manage their funds well because they entirely rely on aid.
The article offers a practical move towards strategic planning in non-profit organizations. Adopting strategies from the most useful and pertinent thoughts about running businesses, allows non-profit organizations to attain victory devoid of conciliating its exceptional duty.
It is important to realize that through strategic planning, nonprofit executives, leaders, and decision- makers will unearthen main values for daily use and how to classify developments likely to influence plans and services and assess the nonprofit sectors major competencies.