Abstract Forensic science is the application of scientific


Forensic science is the application of scientific techniques and theories to solve crimes.

Forensic science consists of many different disciplines e.g Forensic Pathology, Forensic Odontology, Forensic DNA Analysis, Forensic Anthropology, Digital Forensics and many more other disciplines. [19]

Advances in DNA analysis and replication and the implementation of the CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) allows DNA evidence to be more effective in solving current and cold cases as well as tying perpetrators to multiple cases. [5]


DNA: DNA is a biological signature and is usually unique.

By analysing a biological sample a forensic DNA analysts can isolate an individual’s DNA and cross reference it with samples contained in CODIS. [11] DNA is found in blood, seminal fluid, hair roots, tissue samples, nasal secretions and vaginal fluid. [16] The amount of DNA recovered from crime scenes is usually too low to be analysed and has to be amplified using PCR [17]

Forensic Anthropology:

Forensic odontology: forensic odontology is the application of biological science and dental evidence to solve crimes.[23]

Forensic Pathology: the process of finding cause of death

Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System or IAFIS is database of latent and patent fingerprints. IAFIS contains photographs, fingerprints and the criminal history of criminals in the United States. IAFIS also fingerprints and information on military and civilian federal employees. IAFIS contains fingerprints and information taken from federal employees (civilian and military). [5].

Necrophilia: necrophilia is the act of preforming a sexual act on a corpse or having fantasies about preforming a sexual act on a corpse.

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PAP smear: A pap smear is medical procedure where cells are removed from the cervix using a small brush or a spatula the cells are checked under a microscope for signs of cervical cancer.[15] PAP smears are a viable DNA source{16}

PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) was invented by Kary Mullis in 1983. PCR is a method of replicating certain sections of a DNA sample. PCR allows for the re-examination of old stored DNA and the examination of very small samples DNA. PCR can be used to produce a DNA profile from a sample of 0.2ng of DNA. [17]

Serial killer: the FBI defines a serial killer as the killing of 2 or more people by the same perpetrator/perpetrators in separate events. [5].

Discussion of both serial killers:

Dennis Lynn Rader or Dennis Rader aka BTK Killer (Bind, Torture and Kill)

Rader was born on the 9th of March, 1945. Rader is a murderer who murdered 10 people 1974-1991 in Wichita, Kansas. Rader was sentenced to 10 counts of murder in the 1st degree on the 17th of august, 2005 [7] (Kansas Prison Inmate Database). Rader used Ropes, guns, knives, belts, plastic bags and tape during the restraint and murder of his victims. [4]

County Case Number(i) Offence Date Sentencing date ACS Criminal Conviction Description Counts Crime Severity Level Case Status(ii) State

Sedgwick 05CR498 Apr 04, 1974 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Apr 28, 1985 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Dec 08, 1977 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Jan 15, 1974 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 4 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Jan 19, 1991 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Mar 17, 1977 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Sedgwick 05CR498 Sep 16, 1986 Aug 17, 2005 N/A Murder, 1st degree 1 Class A Felony Active KS

Table 1: A full list of Rader’s criminal convictions including sentencing dates. (Kansas Prison Inmate Database)[7]

Rader enjoyed the thrill, the power and the control he had over his victims whilst he murdered them. He prefer to strangle or garrotte his victims to near death, release them so they would regain consciousness and awareness of their situation before he continued suffocating them. Rader was empowered and aroused by his victims suffering and pain. Rader was motivated by sexual desire as he frequently masturbated into the underwear of his, now deceased, female victims. [10] Rader (operating as the BTK killer) contacted police and media outlets numerous in order to gain recognition for his murders and terrorise and taunt the local community and mock the police force. Rader frequently sent trophies from his killings and drawings depicting the crime scenes with detailed analyses to the media and the police. [6]

Conviction of Dennis Lynn Rader

When leaving some of his “correspondences”, Rader was filmed driving a black Jeep Cherokee. That was one of many slip ups that allow the police to start building a profile on Rader [1].

Another major lead was when a floppy disk he had sent to a local television station was forensically examined. The forensic analysis of the disk revealed that the last person to save the file was called “Dennis” and that the disk had been used at the Park City library and at the Christ Lutheran Church.[2].

These two leads suggested that Rader is as a main suspect however, these two leads by themselves are not enough to convict a suspect. DNA taken from a PAP smear, given by Rader’s daughter, was compared to DNA evidence left at the crime scenes. The two sets of DNA matched almost perfectly. This allowed detectives to conclude that the BTK killer was a close family member of Rader’s daughter. [3]

The combination of the DNA evidence and the data recovered from the floppy disk was enough for detectives to arrest Rader.

Familial DNA testing

DNA samples collected from crime scenes can be compared to a suspected family member to create a familial match. The more alleles shared the closer the familial link is between the two people. [18] This allows DNA to be traced when suspects are not on CODIS themselves but have family members which are on the database. (add something about retaining DNA tests and collection) add strengths and weakness of familial DNA testing

Theodore Robert Bundy or Ted Bundy

Bundy was born on the 24thof November, 1946. Ted Bundy was a serial killer who confessed to murdering 30 women across 7 states between1974 to 1978[10]. Bundy was executed on the 24th of January, 1989 by electrocution in Florida. [20]. Bundy was found guilty of murdering two college (university) students and attacking 3 other women on the 15th of January, 1978. The women were all studying at Florida State University in Tallahassee when they were murdered. Ultimately Bundy was sentenced to death for the murder of a 12 year-old girl who vanished from school on the 9th of February, 1978. The child’s decomposing remains were discovered on the 7th of April, 1978.[20] Bundy used clubs and strangled his victims to murder them. He was motivated by sexual desire as he raped his victims and engaged in necrophilia. [4] Bundy admitted in several interviews that his fantasies accompanied and generated the anticipation for his crimes, and that the anticipation of his crimes were more stimulating than the actual crime itself. [10]

The Chi-Omega murders.

Nita Neary saw an intruder leave Chi Omega house at 3:00 AM on the 15th of January, 1978, shortly afterwards the dead bodies of Margaret Bowman and Lisa Levy and badly beaten, bodies of Kathy Kleiner and Karen Chandler were discovered. At 4:00 on the 15th of January, 1978, two residents of an apartment on Dunwoody Street heard loud noises coming from their neighbour’s apartment. After their attempts to contact their neighbour failed, they contacted the police. When the police entered the apartment the badly beaten body of Cheryl Thomas was found. A pair of pantyhose which did not belong to Ms Thomas were also found in the crime scene. [14]

Margaret Bowman and Lisa Levy were beaten and then killed via strangulation [14]

Conviction of Theodore Robert Bundy

All of the victims that survived their attacks were sleeping and consequently were unable to identify their attacker, however Ms. Neary was able to give police a description of the intruder. Ms. Neary described the intruder as a clean-shaven white male who was approximately 5 feet, 8 inches tall and approximately weighed about 160 pounds. She stated that the intruder was wearing a dark toboggan cap, a dark waist-length jacket, light-coloured pants, and was carrying a large stick. Neary identified Bundy as the intruder in a police line up.[14].

Crime scene investigators collected a few smudged finger prints, sperm samples and blood samples, however all the evidence was inconclusive. The intruder left 2 bite marks on the body of Lisa Levy. One of the bite marks was on one of Levy’s breasts. The bite mark on Levy’s breast was unclear, however the other bite mark on Levy’s left buttock was clear. Several measurements and photographs of the Bite mark on Levy’s buttock were taken.

Dr. Souviron who is, an experienced dentist, took dental impressions and photographs of Bundy’s mouth and teeth compared to a dental impression taken from Bundy.[24]

Dr. Souviron testified that when he compared particular features of Bundy’s teeth to the bite marks in Levy’s flesh, he was able to find similarities. [14]

In court Dr. Souviron explained and described the unique structure, the unique features, the sharpness factor and the size of bundy’s teeth to the jury. [24]

The photographs of the Bite mark and the photographs of Bundy’s teeth structure were enlarged and put up on board and then overlaid on top of each other.[24]

Dr. Souviron explained that the attacker had bit Levy once, then turned sideways and bit again. The change in positon meant that the upper teeth remained in the exact same position, however the lower teeth left two separate marks.[24]

Dr. Levine, the chief consultant in forensic dentistry of New York City’s Medical Examiner, testified that Levy must have been lying down in order for the mark to have been left same place.[24]

Dr. Levine and Dr. Souviron testified that the wide variety in the characteristics of human teeth, ensure that an individuals’ teeth and bite marks are highly unique. Therefore bite mark analysis is an accurate and reliable way of identifying a suspect or a victim.[14]

Forensic odontology

Forensic odontology is used to identify human remains which result from terrorism, natural disasters and crimes. Another part Forensic odontology is bite mark analysis, (BMA) is used in violent crimes, such as rape, assault and homicide.[23]Check the book(bitemarks)

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Abstract Forensic science is the application of scientific. (2019, Dec 12). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/abstract-forensic-science-is-the-application-of-scientific-best-essay/

Abstract Forensic science is the application of scientific
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