Abstract

Coconut plays an essential role in the economic, social and cultural activities of millions of people in our country. In the Philippines there is wide range of achievable nut and copra yields, depending on the coconut variety and planting materials which it can render potential high-value markets especially for the local farmers. At the present removing coconut meat from its shell is done manually using knife and hooks. Lack of skilful workers and strength makes work tiring. This research is focused on fabricating a mechanism that can de-shell a coconut from its shell; it can assist farmers to reduce the physical effort during a long period of work.

The prototype design is composed of a rotary blade that breaks the shell of the coconut allowing the coconut meat to be extracted as a whole. It is moved by a 1 HP electric motor running at 1740 rpm accompanied by a speed reducer having a speed ratio of 20:1 permitting to acquire the desire speed of 45 rpm fit to break a coconut shell with safeness on it.

The mechanism also allows optimum average well extracted and non-distorted coconut meat was 70%. With an optimum average time of de-shelling the husked coconut fruit was approximately 55 seconds per nut. The machine is easy to carry and can be used by small scale farmers to produce marketable by-product.

Index Terms— physical effort, nut, yields, small scale farmers, by-product

Introduction

The coconut (Cocos nucifera) [1] is a seed of a coconut palm tree. It is an important multipurpose perennial crop of the tropics.

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Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. Indonesia, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka are the major coconut-producer countries [2]. Indonesia and Philippines are the two biggest producers have 3.7 million ha and 3.1 ha respectively [3]. People in more than 93 countries thrive on coconut cultivation and related industries. It has been traditionally used for its oil, and varied products form endosperm, nut water, tender nut water, husk, fibre and leaves [4]. Coconut industry here at the Philippines in the latest report, Copra prices continue to stumble [5]. And the process of de-shelling coconut nowadays is still creating a downfall prior to the coconut farming economy which gives burden especially to the small scale farmers. The usual way of de-shelling coconut is consuming time and effort [6]

The usual process of breaking of coconut shell is by using a small axe and considered to be an old method of de-shelling coconut. The other way of de-shelling coconut was freezing it overnight that makes the shell pop away to the meat making it easy to remove without any spillage or waste [7]. Other method use water under pressure to separate the coconut meat from the shell [8]. Artificially the coconut meat is been heated in a medium in a certain time to be able to partially create a gap between the meat and the shell. [1]. another fabricated designed [9] the coconut was loaded into a deshelling manually. The de-shelling is done by rotating the chamber.

A study [10] the machine has four motors attached to four fast rotating blades facing each other that able to crack the shell and keep coconut meat from falling. Prior to the previous studies [11] uses circular sawing fulfils the following requirements and targets parameters to a very large extent secondary processing in de-shelling the coconut. The design by [12], [5] coconut de-shelling machine are using cross cutter to break the coconut shell. Further, [13] due to rotation the teeth of the cutter is imparted on the shell to break.

In this study, the researchers would develop a coconut de-shelling machine. Prior to the manual removal of coconut meat. These machine is consists of rotary blades that break the nut that indeed de-shelled the coconut in a most convenient manner.

The study aims; (1) to design and fabricate a coconut meat extractor, (2) to perform the functionality of the machine and (3) to make a cost analysis of the project.

The idea of carrying out this research is to be able to reduce the physical effort upon doing the de-shelling process of the coconut to manual operation that applies enormous force. To save such strength implementing a mechanism that can lessen such effort in process is considered, as these mechanisms reduce physical effort it also utilize the progress of work for the small scale farmers for an easy way of dealing within their work.

The prototype of the research is limited only in de-shelling the coconut meat as its main function. It gives an overview for the future innovation of new equipment used for de-shelling the coconut.

Materials and Method

Conceptual Framework

This section expounds the visualization of Designing, Fabrication, Evaluation and testing and analysing the cost of Coconut Meat Extractor. The process is basically de-shelling the coconut.

The input stage of the framework consists of the related literature that can be the basis of the research. The medium that has to be used is limited on a matured coconut fruit only. The process stage consist of designing, fabrication, evaluation and testing and the cost analysis of the prototype must be meet at the latter part of the process. Finally, the output stage is the constructed prototype that can perform the function of the machine to de-shell the husked coconut.

Materials and Resources

The materials and resources are indeed provided upon the fabrication of the machine. The following are the materials and there corresponding functions. First, an electric motor which supplies the main power of the mechanism that enables to drive the whole system. Speed Reducer (20:1) use to regulate the speed of the motor. Pulleys use as secondary speed regulator prior to speed reducer. Belt is use to connect the pulleys. CR shafting is a driveshaft for the rotary toothed blade for transmitting torque. A Pillow Block is a component use to hold a shafting for steady position while rotating. Rotary Blade a component use to separate the coconut shell to coconut meat. Angle Bars use for making a foundation of all components it holds. Bolts, Nuts and washers use to tighten parts in the foundation like motor and others. And Plain Sheets use to make a guard the machine to make it safer to the user.

Methods and Procedures

The design of the prototype of the Coconut de-shelling machine is limited to what does the machine can perform. It will break the coconut shell to produce a de-shelled a coconut meat as its main function. The factors to be consider in designing the extractor is (1) the power input of the motor and the speed reducer that able to drive the rotary blade that crushes the nut. (2) The availability of materials that can be found locally to lessen the cost of production and the maintenance of the machine. (3) It is desired that the coconut fruit should be well de-shelled and the coconut meat extracted should not be distorted. Figure 2 shows the prototype design of the extractor. Its main components include electric motor, speed reducer, rotary blade and a pointed shaft (facing upward the rotary blade).

The design image of the prototype machine to be fabricated. The machine is designed to separate the coconut meat within the nut by the used of the force to be exerted at the rotary blade [14]. The electric motor rated 1 horsepower with 1740 rpm connects into a speed reducer with a ratio of 20:1 to cover –up the desire 45 revolution per minute prior to the pulleys that is being attached.

Testing and Setup

The prototype is to be tested to determine the time and the success rate of well de-shell and non-distorted coconut meat. The success of every trial is determine when the whole nut has been detached from the coconut meat prior to the speed that carried by the blade from the output of the power that is converted into the speed reducer. According to the following data the power and speed converted to break the shell presented in [12]. Also when determining the desire power and speed applicable to this study refer to Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design [15]

Cost Analysis

Determining the economic advantage of the study is summing all the possible cost gathered during the study and evaluating its price in the current project that has existed.

Result and Discussion

In general, based on the objectives of this research the proposed coconut de-shelling machine is made possible and the by-product has been produce. The machine operate what is the desire output, it can de-shell the coconut without any hassle that can prolong the process. And it is also convenient to carry because of its portability. As shown in Fig. 3 presents the Coconut de-shelling machine.

Design of the Coconut de-shelling machine

It is a mechanism that consists of rotary blade mounted on a shaft that allows rotating by the use of electric motor and a speed reducer. The use of the reducer having a speed ratio of about 20:1 this speed able to reduce the speed to cover up the required speed from 1740 from the electric to 45 rpm without reducing its power capacity that will be deliver into the rotary blade. This revolution is sufficient to break the coconut nut and to be able to separate the meat on it.

The prototype itself utilized safeties towards the machine operator. The operation of the machine was bound to simplicity that any operator can adopt on its characteristics. Once it started to break the nut it can be able to simultaneously detach the pieces without an ease.

Fabrication of the Coconut de-shelling machine

The fabricated prototype is made from cold rolled steel, multiple pulleys, a belt, angle bars, rotary blade, plain sheet, speed reducer and an electric motor. These materials can be found locally and easy to purchase some on these can be bought in Hardware and Surplus Establishments. Upon the fabrication the researchers consider to find assistance in making most of the components of the prototype especially in machining most of the shafting and blade that is being use. The whole structure was welded securely and the body of the prototype in the same way built to withstand any natural pressure. Some components are joined by bolts, nut and washer found at the motor and the speed reducer part. The prototype tested in many trials before approaching on the final testing for the functionality and safeness.

Considering also the previous design gathered the prototype was built not as huge like the others for it can be carried by hand or in short the machine is portable. Also it can be tested on ground and can be put anywhere where it can convenient for anyone who’s operating the machine.

Testing and Evaluation of the Coconut de-shelling machine

As shown in table 1 the actual data during the prototype trial. Based on the sample, there are 20 coconut fruit that undergoes the separation process. Every trial consist an average of 55 seconds per coconut that either coconut meat well extracted or being broken or distorted. The 1st and 2nd trial shown that there were 45 and 58 seconds consume with well extracted coconut meat shown in table 2. And in the prior trials some irregularities occur, when the coconut was not positioned well against the blade it can immediately stab a hole of the coconut due to the force that pushes the coconut downward. These scenarios are unavoidable but can be prevented as shown in table 3 there were 14 out 20 coconut fruits were well extracted and no sign of any distortion which the testing present 70% of success within the said objectives. Both average time and success rate are evaluated with the use of particular formulas shown in the bottom part of each table. First, the Average time equals total time of trials divided by number of trials. Second, Success rate equals number of good output divided by number of trials.

Conclusions

A prototype coconut meat extractor machine was designed and fabricated. This was completed after several data gathering, calculations and application. Upon the evaluation of the prototype it was found that the machine performed the task which was to de-shell the coconut. It caters almost approximately 66 coconut fruit per hour and detached the coconut meat from the nut with an average percentage that most of the test samples were well de-shelled and has a low percentage of cracks and distortion. Indeed it reduces the physical effort in de-shelling the coconut.

For the future improvement of the machine it is desire to replace the blade that is much wider and sharper. Replace a detachable cover prior to future maintenance of the machine for convenient purposes. And for the pointed shaft it must be movable and adjustable to get a suitable setting for a smooth flow of de-shelling.

Cite this page

Coconut De-Shelling Machine. (2019, Dec 05). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/abstract-coconut-plays-an-essential-role-in-the-economic-social-best-essay/

Coconut De-Shelling Machine
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