9. NOVELTY AND LEVEL OF CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
In this topic there are various scientists work like as Albert Einstein in photoelectric effect and Compton works to find change in frequency due to particle nature of photon and bending of light ( photon ) due to gravity and explained by Poud and Rebka (1960) using Mossbauer effet. Which shows the mass contains the photon. CV Raman studied about the particle nature of Photon and scattering and got Nobel Prize. Planck explained the discrete nature of photon. There is also a pair production means electron and positron from photon.
10. EXPECTED OUTCOMES / RESULTS
After studying the above methodology I may concluded and find the mass of photon using the relation which is the base of my imagination and some other new properties of the photons and give the new work and idea related to photonic field or light field and helps in particle physics.
We can analyze mass of photons.
It helps to know how can mass is generated in the universe which helps to formation of universe.
It helps to know idea about mass of photons new field of study will be open.
It helps to understand about string theory.
We all know that the every work has its limitatons though me and my supervisors try to make our works more error free, reliable and understandable to more peoples. We have no the measurement tools to calculate the mass of photon till now. We try to get the mass of photon by the method of mathematical formula which already exists and its intepret quantum mechanically. It is very hard to capture the single photon ( in moving and rest state ) in the well estabilished scientific research laboratory. It is only theoritical and more logic based research. More than that we have hardly about ten months to complete the work.
12. ETHICAL/SAFETY ISSUES
The entire research will be done inside the library and the mathematical formula and interpretation based which is completely safe. I need the research paper , scientific research findings that I get through the different websites and library. We hardly manage to go field work. The simple experiments on the light and its phenomenon that we can carry out in general science library. There is no any ethical/safety issues regarding to this research.
13. TENTATIVE WORK-PLAN AND BUDGET
The workplan and duration of my thesis is given below and it may be effective when my supervisor and co-supervisor co-ordinate and help me in any aspects.
Work Time Duration
Learn Latex 1/3
Formatting & Documentatio n 1/3
Experts 1 Month
Discussion & Editing ? Month
Others 1 Month
The proposed work will cost around 109,000, which has been allocated as follows: Books and reference materials: 8,000
Paper purchase from publication: 35000
Stationary and documentation: 7,000
Internet and communication: 15,000
Defense of thesis: 13,000
Appointment with related subject physicist: 5000
GRAND TOTAL: 109,000
Dhobi, S.H. & Karki, B. (2017). Engineering Sciences International Research Journal, 5(1), pp7-8. Dhobi, S.H. & Shrestha, N. (2016) International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(6), pp793-797.
Birula, I.B., (2006). Acta Physica Polonica B, 37(3), pp936-938.
Pau, H.& Pavicic M. (1996) Intenmtional Jounml of Theoretical Physics, 35(10), pp2085-2091 .
Eisaman, M.D.,& Fan, J. & Migdall, A. & Polyakov, S. V. (2011) Review Of Scientific
Instruments, Vol.82, p1-16.
Goldhaber, A. S. & M.M. Nieto, M.M. (2010). Photon and Graviton Mass Limits, arXiv, p1-34.
Agarwal, N.S.(2015 ).Journal of Modern Physics, 6, P627-633.
Wu,E.T.H. (2016 ). American Journal of Modern Physics, 5(4), P45-49.
Raffelt, G .&Stodolsky, L.(1988).PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 37(5, P1237-1248.
Fisher, J. New framework for determining physical properties – II: properties of photons, p1-12.
Tu1, L.C. & Luo, J .& Gillies,G.T. (2005 ).Rep. Prog. Phys., 68, p80-126.
Jagtap,A.S.(2013). International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4(12), P665-667.
Ryutov, D.D.(2007) .Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 49, P429-436.
Weidner, H (2015). On the Size of a Photon, Conference Paper, p2-9.
Liu, S.L (2018) Electromagnetic fields, size, and copy of a single photon, arXiv, p1-2.
H. Weidner, H (2014).The Size and Energy Loss of a Wave Packet Article, p3-7.
J.M. Butterworth, J.M. Structure of the Photon, Department of Physics and Astronomy University
College London, p563-570.
C.R. Nair, C.R. Photon as a black hole, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram,
Stelana & Lukisova, G, (2008) UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER THE INSTITUTE OF OPTICS,
OPT 253, OPT 453, PHY 434 Lab. 2. Single Photon Interference Instructor, p5-6.
Pariser, B. (2012) Technical Career Institutes, PHOTON MASS, AC 2012-4139, P4-5.
Sahoo, S. , Roy,A.D. & Mandal, S. (2014) Journal of Science and Technology, 4(7), p413-416
J.J. Wei, J.J. & Wua, X.F. (2018) Robust Limits on Photon Mass from Statistical Samples of
Extragalactic Radio Pulsars, ArXiv, p1-2.
15. ASSOCIATION TO NATIONAL PRIORITY
Mass of photon issue is not a national level but it is a international level science research field. All over the world the physicist try to solve the mass of photon either exists or not. But they cannot solve the mysterious nature of photon containing mass . We are trying to solve the mysterious nature of photon containing mass from our country Nepal. It is a great opportunity to us to solve the nature of mass in photon in different states which gives the great contribution in science and technology towards the world. It gives our own popularity in the world in physics which shows our potentiality in physics towards developed country. It is possible to make advance type of computers like quantum computer in our country which help to innovation in physics in our own soil. Young generation will encourage to come in this field in coming year.
In the context of our country, if we can solve the mass containing photon from which we can make a lot of device in medical and electrical field. In the case of medical field we can develop a nature friendly and harmfulness X-ray machine, MRI, CT Scan in our country and it established extra ordinary device in our country which creates a different job opportunity. We can also export then in foreign country and strengthen our economy.
In the case of electrical field we can make solar batteries, solar panels which are very efficient and suitable for the remote area of Nepal. Solar energy also useful for the electrical vehicle which reduces the dependency on the petroleum products to the neighboring country. We can make electrical vehicle I our country and export them in foreign market.