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11 IntroductionPublic transport holds center stage in the Paper

Words: 2647, Paragraphs: 99, Pages: 9

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Economics

1.1 Introduction

Public transport holds center stage in the urban transport agenda. A well-functioning and sustainable city cannot be achieved without strengthening its public transport system.When transit infrastructure is designed to enhance passenger experience, its attractiveness is ensured, making it a viable alternative to private motorized transport. The National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) (MoUD 2014) recognizes that city dwellers are of utmost importance and that all plans must be centered on their common benefit. With reference to a focus on public transportation, the NUTP document emphasizes the following means: Building capacity (institutional and manpower) to plan for sustainable urban transport, and establishing knowledge management system that would service the needs of all urban transport professionals, such as planners, re-searchers, teachers, students etc.

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In this project, the uses of BIM which include visualization, 3D coordination, prefabrication, construction planning and monitoring, cost estimation were discussed in detail. CIDCO bus-stand project was presented as a redevelopment land to realize the actual uses and benefits of BIM.BIM tools were further analyzed by developing a 3D and 4D bus depot model.Furthermore, BIM as the main generator or 4D scheduling were analyzed.The research concluded that although BIM tools do pose some shortcomings such as interoperability issues, the use of BIM is very beneficial to the construction managers

It is a well-known fact that the earlier cost planning is started on; the more suitable results are obtained. Several cost estimation and calculation models can be used during construction process; beginning with the conception phase of the construction project and the schematic design, design development, construction documents phases respectively. However, building cost estimation is an important issue due to the incomplete nature of the project data in the schematic design phase [1].

Cost is one of the major criteria in decision making at the early stages of a building design process. In today‘s globally competitive world, diminishing profit

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

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DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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margins and decreasing market shares. Cost control plays a major role for being competitive while maintaining high quality levels. The cost of a building is impacted significantly by decisions made at the design phase. While this influence decreases through all phases of the building project, the committed costs increase [2].Due to the limited availability of information during the early stages of a project, construction managers typically leverage their knowledge, experience and standard estimators to estimate project costs. As such, intuition plays a significant role in decision making. Researchers have worked to develop cost estimators that maximize the practical value of limited information in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of cost estimation work and thus enhance the suitability of resultant designs and project execution work [3]

1.2 Problem Statement

The problem to discuss in this project is the ability and capability to provide an optimal bus depot with the right strategies to minimize challenges. An attractive public transport creates more passengers to use it. Better bus service with satisfying route network, good operation frequency, good vehicle with quality and comfort are some of the requirements for the attractiveness of public transport. However the modern amenitites provided at bus depot increses the more passengers and also optimal bus parking for buses,two wheeler,four wheeler are necessary requirement in bus depot.their is more vacant land available and no proper facility provided on certain site.

1.3 Current State

A review of bus terminal projects from around the world suggests that the best practices in terminal planning and design are people centric. Such designing of bus terminal infrastructure, its operation and maintenance plan is guided by the vision of securing a high level of quality and comfort both for passengers as well as terminal and bus staff. If Indian cities are to follow such a passenger service quality focused approach towards bus terminal planning in terms of infrastructure, operations, and financial planning certain enablers must be put in place.

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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1.4 Objectives

? To Study Redevelopment Of Structure ,Building Information Modeling And Fuzzy Logic By Using Literature Review To Clear The Concept

? To Collect Data For Case Study And Analyze It With Different Parameters

? To Check The Analyzed Results With Fuzzy Logic

? To Discuss Recommend The Suggestion And Conclusion

1.5 Methodology

Table 1:Methodology Of Work

Data Collection

The first stage involved the study of the project site to understand its suitability for the defined activity. Various factors influencing the site‘s potential like accessibility, linkages, physical features, economic activities and developments in proximity, etc

DATA COLLECTION

Primary Data

Secondary Data

ANALYSIS WITH BIM MODEL

Developed infrastructure

cost assessment

RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC

Result

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

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DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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were analyzed. This study also helped us to carry out the environmental and social impact assessment of the project.

Analysis

This stage involved the review and analysis of data, collected in previous stages, in order to determine the feasibility of the project, both in terms of financial as well as environmental & social impact. This stage also involved a study of the legal and statutory framework along with identification of issues and mitigation measures.

Rectify With Fuzzy Logic

Data analysis of project has revealed the main input parameters to be used in the modeling and training of the network. These parameters were the predominant cost drivers of the case examples. They defined the buildings formal characteristics and the amount of material required for the structural and architectural construction of the building. The total area bears a strong relation to the total cost of the building data analysis and identification of the design variables.

Based upon the results of the analysis, the framework and the procurement plan for further development of the project were finalised.

Research Strategy And Work Design

This research apply the fuzzy rules at estimating projects,to improve performance of cost estimating and avoid project performance fail.

The basic methodology which is considered to achieve the objectives of this project is literature review and past studies which give understanding to the origin of fuzzy, fuzzy principles and fuzzy tools and techniques. The project then discuss the applicable fuzzy at cost estimating, so a programming language where chosen (Matlab). Fuzzy is built in at Matlab. Figure shows Fuzzy interface at Matlab.

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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Figure 1: Fuzzy interface at Matlab First step is fuzzification which includes write main factors affect the cost estimating (the input). Here there was five factors. Figure shows the fuzzification process.

Figure 2: Fuzzy fuzzification

After determined of these factors their needs for the fuzzifier which mean transforms the input into linguistic terms using membership functions that represent how much a given numerical value of a particular variable fits the linguistic term being considered

The chosen shape of the memberships was triangular. Figure shows the fuzzifier variables

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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Figure 3: Fuzzy fuzzifier

The fuzzy inference engine performs the mapping between the input membership functions and the output membership functions using fuzzy rules that can be obtained from expert knowledge of the relationships being modeled. The greater the input membership degree, the stronger the rule fires, thus the stronger the pull towards the output membership function. Since several different output membership functions can be contained in the consequents of rules triggered, a defuzzifier carries out the defuzzification process to combine the output into a single label or numerical value as required. The required rules can be determined by (input)^membership.

Normalization Variable

According to the viable data the variable factors are discrete values with deferent ranges, the fuzzy set needs normalization the variable data to (0-10) values. The normalization can make by the flowing equation.

Validity test

Structure validity concerns the degree to which the variables, as measured by the research reflects the hypothesized construct [10]. After building the model and making all needs of rules, the model run and it give output for cost, many changed on input data done and the model give output, so the model is valid for cost estimating.

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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Reliability test

Test of reliability of model according to the model run. The reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency which measures the attribute it is supposed to be measuring [10]. The results were compared with real projects cost, the outcome give a result near the real project cost. So the model is reliable for all projects. After making pilot study for the model the problem where determined at the rules number. Therefore if the model rules met with the project input the outcome will be near the real project cost.

A model with five important factors was built with 3 memberships and 15 rules. The tests made all the results near the real projects cost, so the cost estimating model is reliable if all rules added.

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

Page 8

1.6 Flow Chart Of Work

LITERATURE SURVEY

PROBLEM STATEMENT

OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

CASE STUDY

THEORATICAL CONTENT

DATA COLLECTION

PREPARE 3D MODEL

REDEVELOP 3D MODEL WITH ADDITIONAL CONTENT

PREPARE COST OF PROJECT

RECTIFY DEVELOP MODEL WITH FUZZY LOGIC

RESULT

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.Acquisition And Redevelopment Of Bus Depots: A Hong Kong Land Policy And Planning Case Study by Lawrence W.C. Lai a,b,c,d,*, K.W. Chau a,b,c, Ken S.T. Ching a,b,c, Jason W.Y. Kwong a, Polycarp A.C.W. Cheung e, Frank T. Lorne explains in this paper As a contribution to urban studies and economic geography, this multi-disciplinary paper, predicated on neo-institutional economics, estate surveying, and land use-transport planning, identifies, from an examination of public records, the spatial distribution of the bus depots (garages) of Hong Kong‘s two biggest franchised bus companies on their leasehold sites from 1946 to 1998/2011. The research investigates the mechanisms the two companies used to obtain land for developing their depots during the period, the impact of the changes these mechanisms had on innovation, the efficiency of land use, and the locations of the depots resulting from changes in such mechanisms.

2.Application Of BIM Technique In Modern Project Management, By “Pingyu YAN1, Xifeng XIE2 and Yan MENG3? explains in this paper, With fast development of modern science and technology, informatization level of all industries is improving continuously and building industry, a kind of traditional industry applies increasingly informatization method to reinforce management and improve economic performance. BIM technique, a new carrier of project information, runs through all stages of construction process throughout the life cycle of project, which renders all project participants to obtain proper information at due time as necessary, assists project understanding, reduces common mistakes and supports project related decision. BIM technique application features distinct characteristics and boasts advantages of visualization, parameterization ,simulation and collaboration. In this paper, functions of BIM technique applied to project management are introduced in conjunction with relevant experiences of BIM pilot projects summarized by China Construction Fourth Engineering Division Corp. Ltd. and value and prospect of BIM application to construction field at the present stage is analyze. China Construction Fourth Engineering Division Corp. Ltd. shall set up own modeling standard to standardize molding elaboration to facilitate accurate instruction of construction in

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

Page 10

following use of model. It is necessary to collect some data with value from projects applied with BIM technique and establish a set of enterprise database of China Construction Fourth Engineering Division Corp. Ltd., from which useful data can be directly called if BIM technique is applied to other projects. In the coming project applied with BIM technique, China Construction Fourth Engineering Division Corp. Ltd. may apply BIM technique to green construction and use Ecotest software for building energy analysis and VE-Pro software for environment analysis to fully display green life of construction enterprise, apply green philosophy to planning and design of future building and ultimately transform successfully from a grey construction enterprise to a green building construction enterprise.

3.An Integrated BIM System To Track The Time And Cost Of Construction Project :A Case Study By Ahmad J.and julien L./journal of construction engineering(2015)

In this paper an effort to merge a time and cost management system with future construction best practices, the study objective was to develop an integrated time-cost management system (ITCMS) and to test it on a real-case scenario. The conceptual methodology revealed that this system would consist of fou modules: time and cost estimating, scheduling, visualization, and EVM. A conceptual workflow was also presented and several tasks to be performed at the design and construction phases developed. The system can be described as a convenient tool that takes advantage of improved team coordination and visualization tools to associate detailed time and cost values with each component of a 5D building model. The system then ensures budget and schedule monitoring throughout the project, with the aid of an earned value management platform. The ITCMS was implemented with thirteen detailed processes to be performed at the design and construction phases. Most of the work is to be performed with computer tools; pieces of software such as MS Project,

4.Building Information Modeling (BIM) For Existing Buildings — Literature Review And Future Needs By Rebekka Volk , Julian Stengel, Frank Schultmann/ Automation in Construction 38 (2014) This paper presented the state-of-the-art implementation and research of building information models (BIM) in existing buildings with focus on maintenance and deconstruction LC stages. Due to the former

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

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DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

Page 11

BIM development, architects, engineers and contractors play a major role as early adopters of BIM technology and still dominate the elaboration of BIM functionalities and BIM dissemination Despite the increasing BIM usage in new structures, implementation of BIM in existing buildings is still limited yet, focusing on recently completed buildings with a BIM at hand rather than on existing buildings without BIM

5.Building Information Modeling (BIM) Use In Turkish Construction Industry By Hande Aladaga,, Gokhan Demirdogenb, Zeynep Is?kc(2016) This paper state that According to the SMART analysis, ?acquisition of firms? has the highest importance among driving forces of Turkish construction industry to adopt BIM and ?organizational structure and culture? is the most important obstacles faced in Turkish industry that complicate using BIM. According to the results, it is seen that ?customer demand/contract obligations? and ?need for collaboration, coordination, communication and interoperability between stakeholders? are seen as most significant factors related with industrial requirements in order to adopt BIM. Also it is ensued that ?customer satisfaction? is the most important factor as an acquisition rather than ?increasing the total profitability? of the firm. Herein it can be suggested that by achieving customer satisfaction, it can be possible to get a new offer from the same customer and to sustain the financial performance of the company. The results also show that ?efficient monitoring and reporting? and ?improved budgeting and cost estimating capabilities? are the most important factors related with project‘s acquisitions by using BIM.

6.The Project Benefits Of Building Information Modelling (BIM) By, “David Bryde a,Mart?Broquetas b, J?rgen Marc Volm c? in this paper explains that, Theoretical developments in Building Information Modelling (BIM) suggest that not only is it useful for geometric modelling of a building’sperformance but also that it can assist in the management of construction projects. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which theuse of BIM has resulted in reported benefits on a cross-section of construction projects. This exploration is done by collecting secondary data from 35 construction projects that utilised BIM. A set of project success criteria were generated and content analysis was used to establish the extent towhich each

REDEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE WITH THE HELP OF BUILDING

INFORMATION MODELING AND RECTIFY WITH FUZZY LOGIC(AURANGABAD

BUS DEPOT)

2018-

19

DYPIET,AMBI ME CIVIL (CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT)

About the author

This sample is done by Scarlett with a major in Economics at Northwestern University. All the content of this paper reflects her knowledge and her perspective on 11 IntroductionPublic transport holds center stage in the and should not be considered as the only possible point of view or way of presenting the arguments.

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