Teenage pregnancy, which is predominant in Gaborone apparently poses as a threat to the female childs education. This research proposal will investigate effects that contribute towards teenage pregnancy in Secondary schools. Current studies have shown that there is an increase in teenage pregnancy in secondary schools. According to Mr Molao, (2017) there were six drop outs of 16 536 in pre-primary, 271 out of 315 261 in primary school, 1 194 out of 116 068 in junior secondary and 477 out of 57 203 in senior secondary. This proposal will take us through the effects of teenage pregnancy on school going adolescents, statement of the problem, research methodology, study population, data collection and data handling, data analysis, limitations, ethical; consideration, timetable and budget.
1.1 Statement of the problem
Teenage pregnancy has become a major public problem worldwide and in Botswana. Teenage pregnancy does not only affect the teenager, it also affects the family and the society. Studies have shown that adolescents these days become sexually active at a young age and most of these young adults do not use contraceptives thus they are at a high risk of pregnancy (McCauley and Salter, 1995).
This may result in one dropping out of school, contracting sexually transmitted infections, poverty and depression. The adolescent fertility rate in Botswana is estimated at 51 births per 1000 young women aged 15-19 years and the trend continues to rise. According to Mr Molao, (2017) there were six drop outs of 16 536 in pre-primary, 271 out of 315 261 in primary school, 1 194 out of 116 068 in junior secondary and 477 out of 57 203 in senior secondary.
In most cases adolescents who become pregnant may resort to unsafe abortions, which many cost many of these young girls their lives.
A pregnant schoolgirl many choose between dropping out of school and undergoing an abortion in order to remain in school thinking that it is the right choice. When these teenage girls resort to abortion they may lose their lives, in the process the society loses future skilled man power and the family loses breadwinners
Secondary schools in Botswana included sex education programs in the school curriculum with the hope to educate adolescents about the consequences and responsibilities associated with sexual activities and to help lower the statistics of teenage pregnancy. Despite the introduction of sex education there are still high rates of teenage pregnancies, this suggest that these sex education programs also have their shortcomings.
This study is conducted to seek the extent to which teenage pregnancy contributes to school dropouts among adolescents in secondary schools in Gaborone, the consequences they face, how the family and society are affected.
1.2 Research Topic
1.3 Research Objectives
i. To determine the extent to which teenage pregnancy contributes to schoolgirl dropout in secondary schools in Gaborone.
ii. To investigate factors predisposing high school girls to teenage pregnancies.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What are the levels of school drop outs in secondary schools in Gaborone due to teenage pregnancy?
ii. What are the predisposing factors girls to teenage pregnancy?
This chapter presents a detailed description of the research methodology. Methodology refers to the detailed procedure that will be used to realize the study objectives. It includes the research paradigm/ approach, a description of study design, study population, sampling design, data collection, data analysis, limitations and ethical considerations, pilot study, final study and budget.
2.1 Research approach
This research is a qualitative research approach. According to Creswell (2013) a qualitative research is a means of exploring and understanding individuals, social; actions beliefs, thoughts and actions ascribe to a social or human problem. Creswell (2013) notes that the process of research involves emerging questions and procedures; collecting data in the participants’ setting; analyzing the data inductively, building from particulars to general themes; and making interpretations of the meaning of data. Therefore a qualitative research approach is useful in this study as it allows the researcher to get an in-depth understanding of teenage pregnancy affecting school going adolescents in secondary schools in Gaborone.
2.2 Study Design
A cross-sectional study design will be used because it enables the researcher to measures the outcome and the exposure in the study participants at the same time. Primary and secondary data will be used to investigate the target population by selecting samples to analyze the data collect by a questionnaire. This design is selected for this research because it is effective, less cost and easily accessible for collecting information from the target population.
2.3 Study Population
The study area is in secondary schools around Gaborone. Study population is female teenagers aged between the ages 14-19 years, guidance and counselling teachers. The target population is 200 pupils. An inclusive criteria will be used to determine participants who are legible for participating in the study.
2.4 Sampling Design
Simple random sampling technique is going to be used by generating a random number. It is suitable for this study because it helps to reduce biasness. The sample will consist of 200 school going pupils who will satisfy the inclusion criteria, their ages will be ranging between 14-19years of age.
2.5 Simple Size Calculation
To determine the ideal sample size for a population, the study will use Slovenes formula which is n=N/ 1+ (N*e^2), where n= sample size, N= population size, 80 and e = margin of error of 5 %. n=200/ (1+ (200*0.0025)) = 160 Responds
2.6 Data Collection Methods
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the problem. The method which will be used are interviews and questionnaire. Participants will be interviewed using questionnaires, and data will be collected on socio demographic, awareness on sign and symptom of pregnancy and awareness on consequences of adolescent pregnancy on mother and child. After data collection, questionnaire will rechecked for accuracy and completeness.
2.7 Data handling
Data handling is a process of ensuring that research data is stored, archived or disposed off in a safe and secure manner during and after the conclusion of a research project. This includes handling data electronically and non-electronically. Data will be handled through paper files, computer workstations and laptops, storage media such as universal serial bus (USB) and memory cards. These systems may be used for storage, archival, sharing, and disposing off data, and therefore, require adequate planning at the start of a research project so that issues related to data integrity can be analyzed and addressed early on.
2.8 Data Analysis
The validity of the instruments used will be maintained by thoroughly reviewing the related literature and seeking opinion of the subject experts whereas the reliability of the instrument will maintained by pre-testing the instruments. A master sheet will be prepared to enter data. Data will be tabulated (in a table) according to the number of responses in master sheet for each questionnaire and it will be arranged and entered for further analysis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square-test) will be used for the analysis of data after entering into master sheet.
3.0 Pilot Study
Limitations involve the disadvantages of the study design chosen, which is a cross-sectional study. The research findings cannot be generalized over the whole population of school girls since the study is only dealing with a small significant part of the school population. The study design is susceptible to bias due to low response rates.
3.2 Ethical Consideration
The researcher will not subject the respondents to any harm or any form of deception. Measures will be taken to show respect, dignity and confidentiality. Since teenage pregnancy is a sensitive issue, participants will be guaranteed anonymity and the information collected will remain confidential. A consent form will be issued out to be completed by the learners with the help of their guardians before they are included in the study since they are minors. A letter will be written to the Secondary school authorities to ask for permission to conduct the study.
2.9 Final Study