Summary and Paraphrasing II Handout 1

Year III – 2019

Session II

Something more on Paraphrasing:

A paraphrase is in the THIRD person not first person. All the “I”, “we”, “me” and ‘us” references need to be changed to he/ she/they/ them/her/him references.

When you paraphrase:

1. Start your paraphrase by using a suitable verb to introduce the author/source of the information

(Examples: X suggests, X claims, X states, etc. Refer to Session 1 Handout)

2. Change the vocabulary using words that have a similar meaning (synonyms)

3. Change the word order of the sentence

4. Ensure your paraphrase has the same meaning as the original quote

Activity 1

Paraphrase the following:

1. “Working from home can lead to employees feeling isolated and dissatisfied” (King, 2009, p.12).



2. “Courses should contain a practical component ensuring graduates have skills that are transferable to

the work place” (Simons, 1999, p.44)



Activity 2

A. Choose the best paraphrase from each of the text given below:

1. In general, male birds are more colorful than female birds.

In general, male birds are more attractive than female birds.

On the whole, the feathers of the male bird are more striking than its female counterpart.

Generally speaking, male birds are more colorful than female birds.

2. Our life is defined by the quality of our choices.

Our life is determined by the quality of our choices.

Our life is affected by the type of choices we make.

Our decisions influence the nature of our life.

3. A. handshake does not mean the same thing around the world.

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A handshake means something different around the world.

Internationally, a greeting by shaking hands is not the same.

A handshake does not mean the same thing around the world.

B. Choose the best paraphrase

On June 26 Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, and Craig Venter, head of Celera Genomics, announced that they had completed the reading of a “rough draft” of the human genome – the complete set of human DNA. (Genome is pronounced as Gee noe)

a. On June 26 two scientists stated they had finished the initial reading of the human


b. It was announced by two researched that they had read the first reading of the complete set

of human DNA.

2. The fact that adult Europeans are twice as likely as Asians to tolerate lactose in milk reflects a

much longer history of dairy farming in the West.

a. In comparison to Europeans, adult Asians have an inability to tolerate lactose in dairy

products such as milk. This is because Europeans have had dairy farms longer than


b. Twice as few Asians can tolerate lactose in milk. However, the Europeans, who have a long

history of dairy farming, can better tolerate the lactose.

Activity 3

A. Paraphrase the following text:

1. “No historian should begin research with someone else’s notes. Taking notes is the first (and perhaps

most important step) in developing our own interpretation of a subject. It forces us to decide (again

and again) what is interesting and important” (Reuben, 2005, p. 413).


Handout 2


“I have always been fascinated with politics and government. I want to work in the government

when I graduate from college and hopefully create a path to be an elected official. The new

position seemed like a natural choice for me.”



General Tip on Summary Writing: A quick read

A summary should be a short version of a longer original source. Its main goal is to present a large amount of information in a short and concise text that includes only the most important ideas of the original text.

Activity 4

A. Summarize the following text.

“The movement toward education by computer is developing fast. Massive Open Online Courses, called MOOCs, are changing how people learn in many places. For years, people could receive study materials from colleges or universities and take part in online classes. But such classes were not designed for many thousands of students at one time, as MOOCs are.” (MOOCS Are Moving Forward, Voice of America)



B. Read the following text and write a summary on it.


1. Your summary must:

Not be more than 50 words, (write down your word count).

be in continuous writing (not note form)

be written in one paragraph

2. Write down four important key words in the text.


As today’s bride and groom celebrate their wedding, they have every excuse for being nervous. They exchange promises of lifelong fidelity and mutual support. However, all around them, they can see that many people do not and cannot keep these promises. Their own marriage has a one in three chance of divorce, if present tendencies continue.

Traditional marriage is facing a crisis, at least in Britain. Not only are there more and more divorces, but the number of marriages is falling. Living together is more popular than before. The family is now no longer one man, one woman and their children. Instead, there are more and more families which include parents, half sisters and brothers, or even only one parent on her / his own.

Although Britain is still conservative in its attitudes to marriage compared with other countries such as the USA, Sweden and Denmark, the future will probably see many more people living together before marriage – and more divorce. Interestingly, it is women rather than men who apply for divorce. Seven out of ten divorces are given to the wife. Also, one of the main reasons for divorce, chosen by ten times more women than men, is unreasonable or cruel behaviour. Perhaps this means that women will tolerate less than they used to.



1. ______________________________

2. ______________________________

3. ________________________________


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1_Handout1. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from

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